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Journal Vol. XIV (LXXVI) - No. 1/2024

Do we still need deep learning?

Cristian Vasile
Petroleum Gas University of Ploiesti, Bd. Bucuresti, nr, 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
Deep learning and superficial learning are two distinct approaches to the educational process, each with significant implications for knowledge retention and cognitive skill development. Deep learning is characterized by conceptual understanding and critical thinking, associated with intrinsic motivation and practical application of knowledge. In contrast, superficial learning is based on rote memorization, without integrating information into a wider context, being motivated by extrinsic factors. In the digital age, easy access to information and artificial intelligence (AI) have radically changed the way learning is done. However, deep learning remains critical to developing critical thinking skills, adaptability and long-term retention. Recent studies highlight the importance of continuing to promote deep learning to meet the challenges of a knowledge and innovation-based society. This comparative analysis highlights the need to balance the use of modern technologies with educational methods that promote a deep and applicable understanding of knowledge.
Keywords: deep learning; critical thinking; digital education

Education - finite or infinite game?

Emil Stan
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiești, Bvd. București, no. 39, 100680, Romania
Today it is readily accepted that learning is in crisis and, as such, the School is in crisis; However, we believe that never before has so much been learned, which is why we will demonstrate that today the School is in crisis because education is in crisis; as such, following in the footsteps of the ancient Greeks, we will distinguish between the technique and the ethics of education, arguing that today’s School has eliminated ethics from the educational process, retaining only technique (the process of instruction). As a result, children no longer know why they should go to school and education seems purposeless; the solution to this crisis is not to perfect the education process but to recover the ethical-value dimension of education. To demonstrate this, we use the finite game/infinite game conceptual binomial developed by John Carse in Infinite and finite games.
Keywords: education; instruction; learning; finite game; infinite game

Aspects regarding the use of didactic strategies in the realization of moral education. Teachers' opinions and equal opportunities in primary education in Romania

Adina Popovici, Dorin Opriş
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, "Babeș-Bolyai" University Cluj-Napoca, 7 Sindicatelor Street, 400029, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Faculty of History, Letters and Educational Sciences, "1 Decembrie 1918" University Alba Iulia, 5 Gabriel Bethlen, 510009, Alba Iulia, Romania
Through the administration of an opinion questionnaire to a number of 445 teachers for primary education in Romania, we obtained research data that show extracurricular activities are preferred in the moral education process, and at the opposite pole are contests with moral themes. Among the proposed methods (moral conversation, moral storytelling, moral example and exercise, didactic game, dramatization and explanatory reading), moral conversation and moral example are often used in primary classes. Regarding teaching aids, it was found that most of the respondents choose films and literary texts. The research data show that we can speak about the proximity to equal opportunities in terms of achieving moral education in rural areas, in relation to that carried out in urban areas, in primary schools in Romania.
Keywords: moral education; primary education; strategy; teaching aids; post-communism; curriculum

Responsible decision-making in teenagers - a prerequisite for career success

Cristina Georgiana Safta, Mihaela Suditu
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiești, Bvd. București, no. 39, 100680, Romania
The issue of decision making in one’s career is a complex topic of analysis, widely debated in the context of a dynamic labour market (characterized by the emergence of new occupations and the increasing scope of new technologies), of the changing value system on which career choices are made, of the increased need for benchmarks that inspire security, confidence and emotional comfort. Teenagers are trying to make sense of their future by exploring their own interests, possibilities, skills, aspirations, but also their limits, obstacles and threats. In this way, they learn to build a life project, which obviously includes a career plan. Exploring their own limits, but also their aspirations, their expectations, they try to make sense of their future, building a life project, a career plan. The current study aims to identify the main professional interests expressed by teenagers and their correlation with their school track/subjects. We are interested in finding out if there is a concern in the delimitation of interests and also if there is a unified and coherent design of their career plan.
Keywords: career; decision; counseling; professional interests

Effectiveness of a training programme to develop inductive reasoning

Denisa Ardelean
University of Oradea, University Street, No 1, Oradea, Romania
In this study, we intend to highlight the effectiveness of a programme to develop cognitive abilities, especially inductive reasoning. For this purpose, we selected 118 young schoolchildren, divided into three groups: experimental, control and placebo. The training programme for the experimental group is based on Koning's theory of inductive reasoning, whose typology includes the six categories: generalization, discrimination, cross-classification, serialization, perturbed serialization and system formation. Following the analysis of the obtained results, it can be stated that the training programme contributed to the development of the inductive reasoning ability.
Keywords: inductive reasoning; cognitive development; primary school; cognitive strategies; Klauer theory

Online learning in supporting students' procedural abilities viewed from a constructivist approach

Jimi Asmara, Rusijono, Andi Kristanto
Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Faculty of Education, Educational Technology Study Program, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
Purpose the study to explain the perspective online learning in supporting students procedural abilities from constructivist point of view.This study used literature review methodology to elaborate topics online learning procedural skills and constructivist theory.Scopus article search engines such as springer Nature,SAGE, Taylor & Francis and google scholar provide collected literature.There are 350 articles covering search topic. There were 78 additional articles that met variables study. Selected articles were evaluated along with 47 references. Online learning has fundamental principle of constructivism. Constructivism encourages learning process that places students as the source process through concrete procedural empirical and systematic activities. Online learning provides new model how learning process can be carried out without face to face can increase student ability especially in terms practicum that requires ability in every learning process.
Keywords: learning; online; skills; procedural; constructivist

Digital native characteristics – impact on classroom climate

Ramona Furtună
University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
The classroom educational climate encompasses the players involved in the educational process, as well as the whole relationship network formed, aiming for the optimum development of the student’s personalities, with an active role in achieving performances (Cristea, 2016). This study examined the links between perceived digital native characteristics (PDNC), and teacher-students relationships (TSR), as we agree with current debates on attachment theories, clarifying the contribution of PDNC to closeness or conflict, with further implications on classroom climate. We investigated the hypothesis using a sample of 120 primary and secondary teachers, 86,2% females, range 21 to over 50. Our results were obtained using correlation analysis, and linear regression, and showed that there is a significant correlation between PDNC and conflict (r=-.34) and PDNC and closeness (r=.32).
Keywords: perceived digital native characteristics; conflict; closeness; educational climate

Cognitive psychology and the classroom: what teachers need to know

Mariëtte Fourie, Gawie Schlebusch
University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa
Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa
This paper examines the dynamics of learning and how they relate to the optimal teaching strategies for learners. The authors aim to enhance learners' information processing abilities by highlighting the importance of considering different learning theories in the classroom. These considerations are based on the qualitative behaviour of learners' conscious awareness, cognitive and metacognitive engagement. A multi-stage cluster sampling procedure was employed to select a sample of 840 Grade 11 learners from 20 schools in the education district. A questionnaire was used to collect data, and statistical tests were conducted to validate and analyse the data. The study's results suggest that it is crucial for teachers to use a variety of learning theories and to consider variables that facilitate effective information processing by learners. Understanding diverse learning theories and their interplay positively influence the cognitive development of learners. The study's findings, which include SEM and HLM analyses and implications from teachers' application of juxtaposed theories, suggest that inefficiencies may exist in certain teaching approaches and in individual learners' information processing. Teachers who understand and apply the simultaneous impact of juxtaposed theories of learning can enable learners to assimilate or accommodate incoming information into their cognitive schema, leading to deeper and more meaningful understanding.
Keywords: cognition; cognitive psychology; information processing; learning theories; metacognition

The impact of social entrepreneurship education on students' competencies and intentions: a systematic review

Nicoleta Moron
Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Carol I 11, 700506, Iaşi, Romania
As it has only been three decades since the first social entrepreneurship course was taught at Harvard University, research in the field of social impact education is extremely recent. Through a systematic review of the literature in the field, we aim to highlight through empirical evidence the impact that social entrepreneurship education has on students' competencies and intentions to start a social venture. To this end, 23 articles published until September 2023 in the Web of Science and Scopus databases were reviewed. The results of our analysis lead to the formulation of benchmarks for improving research in the field.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship education; social entrepreneurship competencies; higher education; systematic review; social entrepreneurship intention

COLLES Survey as an initial pedagogical diagnostic method? Veterinary anatomy teaching with highs and lows at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Alexandru Gudea, Tudor Tănase, Nicoleta Gudea
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Calea Manastur 3-5, Cluj-Napoca,Romania
ERP Concept Solutions, Str Baladei nr 25, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
The paper presents in a concise form, the results and the conclusions of the COLLES survey administered to students of the 2nd year (Romanian and English taught programs) of the Veterinary Medicine from Cluj-Napoca, during the Anatomy course. The interpretation of the specific COLLES scales (combined preferred and actual) form points to some interesting aspects linked either to some of the interpersonal relations and expectations of the students or to some systemic issues related to the specificity of the didactical process in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. These conclusions may serve as a good start for a more ample survey of several subjects within the Moodle platform, targeting some clinical-related topics to build a more complete image of the student’s needs and specificities.
Keywords: moodle, e-learning; veterinary anatomy; colles survey; constructivist environment; assessment; pedagogical diagnostic

Money lives: improving financial capability using behavioural science and ethnography

Krishane Patel, Elena Kalfova, Simeon Petrov, Antony Elliot, Ivo Vlaev
Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Sofia University, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria
Sofia University, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria
Fairbanking Foundation, London N1 7GU, UK,
Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
This investigation uncovers the factors influencing financial capability by utilizing behavioural science and ethnography. The study employs a representative sample from across the United Kingdom with a total of 72 households. This presents a unique opportunity to establish how the general population understands and utilises money, their views and attitudes towards money, and how this impacted each of the three financial behaviours. This investigation utilised a behaviour change theory to comprehensively and systematically encompass influences on the three behaviours underpinning financial capability. We were also able to design interventions based upon the most significant influencing factors. As such the interventions could simultaneously reduce the impact of significant barriers and further accentuate the effect of enablers to each financial behaviour.
Keywords: behavioural change; financial behaviour; consumers; financial education; financial capability

A smart contract-based decentralized web3 platform for education

Bogdan Țigănoaia, Andrei-Bogdan Alexandru
National University of Science and Technology Politehnica Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042, Bucharest, Romania
The blockchain technology can become a solution in data privacy and protection, being considered a public and decentralized database, in which the identity of a user is masked in the form of an address. Based on this technology, several decentralized protocols such as Bitcoin or Ethereum have been created, with the help of which decentralized applications can be created. In this article, we examine how these technologies can be used to ensure the transparency of a software application, but also the privacy and protection of user data. Other facilities like Non-Fungible Token - NFT and Smart Contract are used. The paper proposes the design and the implementation (including the source code) of a web platform for education / courses incorporating blockchain technology. The results and conclusions are showed. Finally, the contributions of the paper, the limitations and future works are also highlighted.
Keywords: education; web platform; blockchain; data privacy; NFT; smart contract; decentralization

Organizational stress and resilience. The role of external resources

Ana-Diana Balcan, Maria Nicoleta Turliuc
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Toma Cozma, no. 3, 700554 Iaşi, Romania; The Group of Mobile Gendarmes of “Matei Basarab” Ploiești, Str. Ghe. Grigore Cantacuzino, no. 257, Ploieşti, Prahova
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Toma Cozma, no. 3, 700554 Iaşi, Romania
Theoretical background. Military gendarmes represent a professional category frequently exposed to organizational and operational stress factors. In the face of potential stressful situations, threats, adversity or change, resilience is essential. As a protective factor against the negative effects of stressors, resilience ensures the military gendarmerie's ability to remain task-focused, productive and connected to the organization's missions. Public safety workers' perceptions of organizational structure and climate can directly affect resilience (Hart & Cooper, 2001). It has been shown that transformational leadership can increase military resilience (Jayasingam et al., 2019) by positively reinterpreting stressful experiences as opportunities for personal growth and development (Bartone, 2012). Also, studies demonstrate the effectiveness of psychological training activities in the sense of increasing resilience (Arnetz et al., 2013). Methodology. The study was conducted on a number of 214 military personnel, who completed self-report questionnaires regarding organizational stress, resilience, the management style of the leader of the organization they belong to, and the perception of the effectiveness of the psychological training activity. Also, the mediating role of external resources, management style and the perception of the psychological training activity, in the relationship between organizational stress and the resilience of military gendarmes, was analyzed. Results. Organizational stress has a significant negative effect on resilience. Transformational management style, transactional management style and perceived effectiveness of psychological training activity are partial mediators of the relationship between organizational stress and resilience of military gendarmes. The results are of particular practical importance to commanders and mental health professionals working in military organizations.
Keywords: organizational stress; military leadership; military training; resilience

The relationship between grit, curiosity, and life satisfaction: a systematic study

Riswana Maryam, Meera Padhy, Prachi Pandey, Chittakath Hasna
Research scholar, centre for health psychology, University of Hyderabad, PIN- 500046, India
Associate professor, centre for health psychology, University of Hyderabad, PIN- 500046, India
Research scholar, centre for health psychology, University of Hyderabad, PIN- 500046, India
Research scholar, centre for health psychology, University of Hyderabad, PIN- 500046, India
Various factors contribute to the success and life satisfaction of individuals. Grit, however, becomes the most important one in the long run. Grit, described as commitment to long-term goals and perseverance, can be crucial for personal development. This study aims to investigate the relationship between grit, curiosity, and life satisfaction through a correlational research design. Through purposive sampling, a sample of 390 participants (181 women, 208 men, and one unspecified gender) was recruited and administered the Grit scale, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II, and Life satisfaction scale. The study's results were analyzed using SPSS 23 and AMOS 21, illuminating the substantial indirect influence of grit on life satisfaction, mediated by curiosity, and a direct, positive impact of grit on life satisfaction. These findings reinforce the idea that well-being is a complex interplay of psychological traits and experiences. Encouraging a holistic approach to personal development and well-being, considering factors like grit and curiosity, can lead to more fulfilling and satisfying lives.
Keywords: grit; curiosity; life satisfaction; well-being; perseverance

Effectiveness of mnemonic instruction in enhancing of reading ability among learners with dyslexia in South Africa: analysis of age differences

Lilian Zindoga, Peter JO Aloka
Wits School of Education, University of the Witwatsrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050, South Africa
This study examined the effect of age on effectiveness of mnemonic instruction in enhancing reading abilities among grade three learners with dyslexia (LWD) in two public primary schools in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The Skinner’s reinforcement and the Information Processing theories were employed. A quasi-experimental design was used. Two schools were used as research sites, for intervention and another for control. A sample size of 43 learners was obtained in the two selected schools using purposive sampling technique. The tools used were the Bangor Dyslexia Test, pre- and post- tests, and a reading comprehension test. The results of reading ability indicate that the score of older learners (M=24.9; SD=10.3) was significantly higher than that of younger learners (M=15.8; SD=8.3), t (21) = 2.303, p = .032. The study recommended that the Department of Basic Education should revise the policy that reading is tested from grade one.
Keywords: age; mnemonic instruction; reading ability; learners; dyslexia; primary schools

Exploring ego defense mechanisms in preclinical dentistry students: a cross-sectional analysis

Nadya Avramova, Ivanka Vasileva
Medical University-Sofia, Faculty of Dental Medicine, 1 G. Sofiiski Str., 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria
Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological operations that function to protect a person from anxiety-producing thoughts and feelings that mediate the individual's reaction to emotional internal conflicts and to external stressors. Challenging academic curriculum in dentistry can result in elevated levels of stress, anxiety, depression, burnout, suicidal intent, and other mental health issues. The aim of the current investigation was therefore to examine the prevalence and type of defense styles used by dental students as well as to analyze associations of these defenses with some demographic and academic factors. The study was based on a cross-sectional design and used convenience sampling to recruit a total of 125 preclinical dentistry students. Defensive functioning was measured by using the Defense Style Questionnaire – modified form (DSQ-20). The results showed that according to their mean scores, the most employed EDM was sublimation, followed by rationalization and idealization. Two conceptual patterns of defenses (mature and immature) tend to co-occur in males as well as in general, men endorsed psychological defenses to a higher degree than did women. There were no significant associations with students’ age and year of study. Contrary to previous reports, a significant negative correlation between academic performance and mature defense styles was found. Proper implementation of defenses might contribute to reducing symptoms of maladaptive behavior, ensuring a better psychological well-being, and increasing quality of life. Considering educational environment, this might facilitate better outcomes in academic field and subsequently, better professional realization of future dentists.
Keywords: academic performance; demographic variables; dental students; DSQ-20; ego defense mechanisms

Does talent protect or compromise? Investigation of the emotional and behavioural disorders and giftedness in children

Roland H. Gergely, Alina S. Rusu, Monika Madaras, Kalcza-Janosi Kingab
Doctoral School "Education, Reflection, Development", Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Babes- Bolyai University, 7 Sindicatelor Street, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Applied Psychology Department, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Babeş-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Calea Manastur Street, No. 3-5, Romania
Gifted children are often portrayed in a positive light, with little attention given to the potential emotional and behavioural challenges they may face. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive role of parental and child-related socio-demographic factors, as well as giftedness factors (learning, motivation, creativity and leadership), on aspects of emotional and behavioural disorders. A total of 182 parents completed the demographic questionnaire, the Renzulli-Hartman Scale and the CBCL questionnaire. Our results indicated that, in addition to giftedness, the parental age, the fathers’ education level and chronic illnesses are significant predictors of emotional and behavioural disorders. Giftedness had a greater predictive power for internalization symptoms than for externalization symptoms, in line with previous studies.
Keywords: emotional and behavioural disorders; giftedness; learning; predictive factors

Association between internet gaming disorder and loneliness: the mediating effect of suicidal and self-injurious behavior in adolescents

Veronika Mihaliková, Mária Dědová
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Trnava University, Trnava, 917 43, Slovakia

Internet Gaming Disorder is a serious problem in the lives of young people. In adolescents (N = 720), loneliness, self-injurious, and suicidal behaviors were tested as selected predictors of Internet Gaming Disorder symptoms in males and females. Suicidal behavior, self-injurious behavior and loneliness were not confirmed as predictors of Internet gaming disorder in men (p > .05). Self-injurious behavior, loneliness, and suicidal behavior were confirmed as predictors of Internet Gaming Disorder in females (R2 = .01-.04; p < .05). Suicidal behavior confirmed a mediating effect between loneliness (β3 = -.035; p3 = .007) and IGD symptoms in females. The results highlight the importance of considering factors such as suicidal behavior and respondent gender that enter the relationship between loneliness and the development of Internet gaming disorder.
Keywords: internet gaming disorder; loneliness, self-injurious behavior; suicidal behavior 

Facing posttraumatic stress disorder in Brazil: a survey of therapist practices

Michelli Carrijo Cameoka, Luísa Jobim Santi, Joana Singer Vermes, Carlos Manoel Lopes Rodrigues
Fleximind Psicologia, SGAS 610, 70.200-700, Brasília, DF. CEP 70.200-700 Brasília, 70910-900, Brazil
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Brazil
Paradigma Center for Behavioral Sciences, Bartira St., 1294, 05009-000 São Paulo, Brazil
Brasília University Center, SEPN 707/907, 70790-075 Brasília, Brazil
This study examines the treatment of PTSD in Brazil, a diverse country with limited research on the topic. It surveyed 208 psychologists and physicians who had treated PTSD cases, focusing on their approaches. The study found that 48.1% used screening instruments, with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) being the most commonly adopted theoretical model (49%). Over 20 different theoretical affiliations were mentioned, and 41.3% of clinicians adhered to multiple theories. Criteria like individual case analysis, scientific evidence, and treatment acceptance guided treatment selection. Surprisingly, widely accepted trauma-focused therapies were not extensively used. Lack of PTSD education in undergraduate programs (38.5%) was identified as a significant barrier. These findings can inform mental health policies and highlight the need for evidence-based therapy training in educational institutions.
Keywords: PTSD; treatment; evidence-based; trauma-focused psychotherapy

A preliminary approach to implicit aggression in sports and educational sciences field

Radu Predoiu, Mihai Ciolacu, Andrzej Piotrowski, Alexandra Predoiu, Recep Görgülü, Germina Cosma
National University of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Constantin Noica 140, Bucharest, 060057, Romania; University of Craiova, Doctoral School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Brestei 146, Craiova, 200207, Romania
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Panduri 90, Bucharest, 050663, Romania
University of Gdańsk, Institute of Psychology, Bażyńskiego 8, Gdańsk, 80-309, Poland; Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Institute of Pedagogy, Arciszewskiego 22A, Słupsk, 76-200, Poland
Bursa Uludag University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Psychology of Elite Performance Laboratory (PePLaB), Gorukle 01, Bursa, 16059, Turkiye
University of Craiova, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Brestei 146, Craiova, 200207, Romania
Everyone has implicit biases, no one is immune. The research aimed to explore the automatic/ unconscious aggression of athletes and future specialists in the field of education sciences (future teachers). 179 participants were recruited in the current research, aged between 20 and 24. An Implicit Associations Test (IAT) was created for automatic assessment of aggression. Data analysis revealed that more future teachers (20.83%) associated aggression with self (at the unconscious level), when compared to athletes. Recommendations for future teachers who have obtained a positive D score at IAT have been made. However, most of the participants automatically associated aggression with others (not with self). Using ANOVA procedures the differences between groups, in terms of implicit aggression, were investigated. Athletes from team sports (e.g., football, handball) and grappling combat sports (judo, jiu-jitsu) associated aggression with others at the highest level. Also, athletes in heuristic sports (open skills) associated aggression with others at a higher level than athletes practicing algorithmic sports. The IAT results were explained in the light of the specifics of each activity (sports discipline or future teaching activity).
Keywords: unconscious aggression; implicit association test; athletes; future teachers

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