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Journal Vol. XIII (LXXV) - No. 2/2023

Artificial Intelligence in education: transformative potentials and ethical considerations

Cristian Vasile
Petroleum Gas University of Ploiesti, Bd. Bucuresti, nr, 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
Abstract
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is increasingly becoming a driving force in revolutionizing various sectors, and education is no exception. This article explores the transformative potentials of AI in education, delving into its applications, benefits, and ethical considerations. Drawing on a range of scholarly works, this discussion aims to provide an overview of the current landscape and future prospects of AI in shaping the educational experience.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, education technology, machine learning, personalized learning, ethical considerations

The impact of technology-assisted classroom guidance program on meeting the guidance needs of students

Serdar Özmen, Cigdem Hursen
Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services, Turkey
Near East University, Near East Boulevard, ZIP: 99138 Nicosia, Cyprus
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to design, implement and evaluate the results of a technology-assisted classroom guidance program aimed at meeting the guidance needs of students. This study was realized in two stages, namely program development and program evaluation. The study group of the research was formed by 9th grade students enrolled at vocational and technical Anatolian high school in Ankara. The experimental process stage of the study involved application of technology-assisted classroom guidance program, whereas the control group was offered 15 activities of the existing classroom guidance program for the 15 weeks of the semester. Following the experimental process, it was found out that technology-assisted classroom guidance program was effective in meeting the guidance needs of the students in the experimental group.
Keywords: developmental guidance; comprehensive guidance and psychological counseling programs; guidance needs; guidance and psychological counseling services; classroom guidance program

Teachers' perception of their readiness for online teaching

Nataša Ljubić Klemše
Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Abstract
This work studies teachers' perception of their readiness for online teaching (OT) since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Firstly, the circumstances that can be used to explain the factor of readiness for OT are explained, followed by outlining the results of research on the teachers' perception of their readiness for OT. This research (N=390) encompasses the review of scientific literature and interpretation of the obtained results to determine the correlations between teachers' readiness for OT and predictive factors related to digital technology, digital literacy, and professional training online. Furthermore, it sought to investigate the differences regarding teachers' gender, profession, and relationship to work experience. The obtained data provide insight into the factors of readiness for OT that can be used to interpret teachers' perceptions of online instruction.
Keywords: digital technology; digital skills; online teaching; professional training; teachers

Co-teaching and academic outcomes for SWD. Effective implementation strategies

Cipriana Barone, Alina Narcisa Crișan
University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj- Napoca,
Calea Mănăştur 3-5, Cluj-Napoca, 400372, Romania
Abstract
Co-teaching is an instructional delivery model meant to respond to the popular demand for full inclusion of students with disabilities (SWD) in general education classrooms. Two teachers (special educator and content area teacher) work together to deliver instruction in various ways to ensure all students' success. This systematic review looks at research on co-teaching from 2018 to 2023 and includes both descriptive (two) and experimental studies (five). The review aims to investigate the academic outcomes of students with disabilities in K-12 co-taught classrooms. Results show that while co-teaching is a well-intended model, it does not significantly impact the academic performance of SWD. Results provide an opportunity for reflection and further examination of factors that can improve the efficacy of co-teaching, revealing what co-teachers do and how they do it to impact the academic achievement of SWD.
Keywords: co-teaching, academic performance, inclusion of students with disabilities (SWD)

Modern approaches in toddlers’ education

Elena Claudia Mihai, Iulia Adelina Ghiță
Petroleum – Gas University of Ploiești, 39, Bdv. București, Ploiești, 100680, Romania
Abstract
Parenting involves a multitude of responsibilities, one of the most critical being the education of children. A holistic approach to child education encompasses home-based learning, experiential learning, digital resources, the transmission of values and beliefs, and formal education. All these sources can facilitate collaboration between educators and parents in delivering sustainable education for their children.
This article aims to investigate the use of alternative or traditional educational methods, using rewards and punishments or no consequences, by a sample of toddlers’ parents. Their main sources of information for children's education were investigated also. The sample study included 40 preschoolers’ parents, aged 24 - 39 years.
Keywords: reward; punishment; traditional educational measures; modern educational measures; preschools’ parents; preschooler's education

Examining professionals’ opinions on effective educational management and supervision for the gifted education

Çiğdem Şahin
Dr., Çukurova Bilim ve Sanat Merkezi, Adana, 01170, Türkiye
Abstract
The aim of this research is to find out the characteristics of effective educational management and supervision in gifted education. Qualitative research method was used in the study. The data collected from supervisors, managers, assistant managers, lecturers, teachers, coordinators, specialists, consultants in 2020-2021 academic term were analyzed using content analysis technique. As a result of the research, the themes and contents for the effective educational management and supervision were defined under the following titles: Educational program management, communication, human resource management, leadership, organizational targets, organizational behaviors (Educational Management); accountability and efficiency, professional development, organizational development, technology-based development, qualifications of supervision and supervisors (Educational Supervision).
Keywords: Educational management; educational supervision; gifted and talented education; qualitative method

The correlation between teacher support and primary school students’ life and school satisfaction

Tomislava Vidić, Marija Stamać Ožanić
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Teacher Education, Savska cesta 77, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Hendal d. o. o., Jurja Žerjavića 13, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Abstract
Students’ life satisfaction is a sense of subjective well-being and the capacity to effectively deal with and adapt to change and cope with environmental demands. In the last three years, students all over the world have been faced with changes in the educational system brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. Many schools were forced to organize online classes, and numerous teachers encountered this way of teaching for the first time. The aim of this research was to examine the perception of teacher support and its correlation with students’ school and life satisfaction. The research was carried out among 402 students of the third to eighth grade of primary school in Zagreb, Croatia. The implemented simple analysis of variance has shown higher satisfaction with teacher support, school and life among younger than among older children. Regression analyses have shown that students’ age and teacher support act as important predictors of students’ school satisfaction, which was found to be a predictor of students’ life satisfaction.
Keywords: online teaching; primary school; student life satisfaction; student school satisfaction; subjective well-being; teacher support

Institutional attachment as a key factor for academic performance

Mihaela Suditu, Cristina Georgiana Safta
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiești, Bvd. București, no. 39, 100680, Romania
Abstract
The current study intends to analyze two dimensions considered crucial for students' academic success, namely institutional attachment, understood as a sense of belonging and an awareness of being part of a community, and academic performance, as a sustained effort, directed and materialized in achieving high academic results. The sample we propose consists of 296 first- and third-year students. The research instrument used is the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ). The premise that underpins our approach is that there is a strong and sustained relationship between institutional attachment and academic performance. The results are statistically processed and are explained in tables and graphs.
Keywords: institutional attachment; academic performance; academic environment; adaptation; academic drop-out

Voicing green learning in rural areas through service-learning: A participatory action research study

Loredana Manasia, Andrei Pârvan, Grațiela Ianoș
National University of Science and Technology Politehnica Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independenței, Bucharest, Romania
University of Bucharest, 90 Șoseaua Pandurilor, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The paper explores the role of service-learning pedagogy in fostering green learning and skills, particularly in rural school setting. By triangulating data from photovoice, dyadic interviews, and reflective observations, the authors implemented an action research study, involving sixteen students from grades 5 to 8 in a Romanian public school. Initial and final interviews explored the participants' perceptions and strategies toward green learning, while photovoice documented their learning process. Observational tools further enriched data collection. The study found service-learning enhanced enjoyment, deep learning strategies, and a sense of community in multi-ethnic classrooms. Thus, experiential learning pedagogies coupled with participant research methods can significantly bolster green learning and competences.
Keywords: green learning; service-learning; action research

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the medical education system: A Romanian cross-sectional retrospective study

Ștefănescu Denisa, Moga Cosmin-Ioan, Gliția Denisa-Camelia, Crișan Cătălina Angela
University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hațieganu Cluj-Napoca, Strada Victor Babeș 8, Cluj-Napoca 400347, Romania
Clinic of Psychiatry I Cluj-Napoca, Victor Babeș 43, Romania
Abstract
Introduction: In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of new teaching strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic through the students' perspective and their mental health profiles. Methods: Active students from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hațieganu during 2019-2021 retrospectively completed an online questionnaire including inquiries on the education changes and DASS-42 items. Finally, they were divided into preclinical and clinical status. Results: Preclinical students expressed significant compliance with their teachers' handling of practical notions (p=0.04), their teachers' online interaction (p < 0.001), and the objectivity of oral exams (p=0.02). More than half of the participants had different levels of depression, anxiety, and stress severity. Levels of depression were significantly associated with housing possibilities and females expressed higher scores on the stress scale. Conclusions: The pandemic brought varying mental disturbances for students while the preclinical/clinical status could delineate distinct views on the new teaching strategies.
Keywords: covid-19; education; mental health; students; depression

Decoding the relationship between language, entropy, and cognitive functioning: insights from a statistical analysis of Romanian literature

Alexandru Dinu
National University of Science and Technlogy Politehnica Bucharest (UNSTPB), Bvd. Iuliu Maniu, 1-3, Sector 6, București
Abstract
The capacity for effective communication and sharing of ideas has been instrumental in driving the human evolution. The focus of this paper is on exploring the fundamental mathematical framework that underlies natural language and demonstrating that practical applications can readily uncover theoretical principles like conditional probabilities and informational entropy. This study utilizes a comprehensive Romanian language corpus to conduct a statistical analysis of individual and conditional word probabilities. Additionally, an experimental survey was designed to evaluate the respondents’ subconscious selection of follower words. By comparing the results of the survey with the reference results obtained from the statistical analysis of the representative corpus, significant correlations were discovered between the conditional entropy and the survey participants’ chosen options. The study considers demographic variables such as age, gender, and education level and evaluates their contribution to the results. The paper also proposes several possible directions for future research.
Keywords: natural language processing; mathematical framework; survey; information theory

The strengths of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in university students: A qualitative investigation

Anusha V. Ramji, Juliet Foster
Section of Pediatric Population Science, Outcomes, and Disparities Research, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers Cancer Instiute of New Jersey (CINJ), Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA
Department of Psychology, King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN), 16 De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, United Kingdom
Abstract
Though adults with ADHD face more challenges than neurotypicals at university, they seem to have found ways to manage. This might be indicative of strengths, an area neglected in currently “deficit” focused ADHD research. This project aimed to ascertain what the strengths could be in 5 undergraduates who completed an audio-recorded semi-structured qualitative interview. Data was collected from a phenomenological perspective, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Courage, Humanity, Seeking Self Actualization, Vitality, as well as Wisdom and Knowledge were the 5 themes extracted using the Character Strengths and Virtues Handbook (CSV) (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Further research on the strengths related to ADHD could increase the generalizability of these findings and add to our knowledge of this area which has been neglected by research.
Keywords: ADHD; strengths; neurodiversity; university; students

The effectiveness of augmented reality technology in enhancing learning outcomes among primary school students: a study based on the ARCS model of motivation

Abdullah Alenezi
Educational Technology Department, Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia
Abstract
This paper examines the effectiveness of using augmented reality (AR) with the ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction) framework to improve student performance and motivation in primary schools in Saudi Arabia. A sample of 100 randomly selected primary school pupils from grades 4 to 6 were used in the study, and two motivational and learning use scales were used to collect data. The results of the study indicated that AR implementation using the ARCS framework significantly improved knowledge and motivation among the primary school students. The paper recommends that AR should be adopted in primary schools in Saudi Arabia, specifically for grades 4 to 6, as an effective method of enhancing student learning and motivation.
Keywords: augmented reality; ARCS framework; efficacy learning; student performance; motivation for learning

Regulation of positive and negative affect: Associations with stress and resilience in health professions students

Kremena Mineva
Trakia University, Medical Faculty, Armejska street 11, Stara Zagora, 6000, Bulgaria
Abstract
The study aimed to establish the relationship between affect regulation strategies, perceived stress, and resilience in health professions students. A total of 181 undergraduates participated in the survey. The instruments used were Brief Resilience Scale, Responses to Positive Affect Scale, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale. The analyses indicated that reappraisal performed as a positive predictor of resilience, whereas rumination and dampening - as negative predictors with dampening effect being the strongest. Dampening, rumination, and self-blame predicted perceived stress positively and reappraisal predicted it negatively. Perceived stress fully mediated rumination-resilience relationship. The study show that regulation of negative affect via rumination, self-blame, reappraisal, and down-regulation of positive affect via dampening, but not its up-regulation, were associated with students' perceived stress and resilience. Tendencies to reappraise negatives experiences boosts resilience, but self-blaming, ruminating and suppressing positive ones make students vulnerable to negative appraisals and experience of stress with the latter presenting as the strongest risk factor for their adaptability. Implications of implementing emotion regulation skills in psycho-education to enhance students' resilience are discussed.
Keywords: emotion regulation; stress appraisal; adaptation

Examining stress tolerance and self-efficacy in soldiers

Katrina Volgemute, Zermena Vazne, Łukasz Wirkus
Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Department of Sport and Training Theory, Education Psychology and Education Internship, Riga, LV1006, Latvia
University of Gdańsk, Institute of Pedagogy, Gdańsk, 80-309, Poland
Abstract
This research aims to investigate the relationship between soldiers' physical self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, and stress tolerance. The study examined 34 male soldiers from the Latvian National Armed Forces, utilizing the Self-Efficacy to Regulate Exercise Scale, The General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Determination test (DT) from the Vienna Test System. The testing was conducted individually face-to-face in a laboratory setting, utilizing a computer-based valid measuring instrument to assess the stress tolerance of the participants. This assessment was complemented by physical self-efficacy and general self-efficacy questionnaires. Our findings highlighted the significance of soldiers' physical self-efficacy, as it exhibits positive and substantial relationships with stress tolerance. The regression model for physical self-efficacy was statistical significance. Specifically, general self-efficacy and stress tolerance demonstrated a positive predictive effect on physical self-efficacy. This implies that higher general self-efficacy and stress tolerance correspond to greater physical self-efficacy. The implications of these findings are crucial because they highlight the role of self-efficacy and stress tolerance in determining soldiers' physical self-efficacy levels. Understanding these relationships can have implications for military training programs and interventions aimed at improving the performance of soldiers, their stress tolerance, mental resilience, and well-being. This study holds both theoretical and empirical value. Furthermore, these findings may be extended beyond military context, offering valuable implications for other high stress professions.
Keywords: stress tolerance; general and physical self-efficacy; soldiers

Relationships of school climate, parental support, life satisfaction, and internet gaming disorder among adolescents

Vladimír Filipovič, Mária Dědová, Veronika Mihaliková
University of Trnava, Faculty of Arts, Department of Psychology, Hornopotočná 23, 918 43 Trnava, Slovak Republic
Abstract
This research study examines the relationship between school climate, perceived parental support, life satisfaction, and Internet gaming disorder in adolescents. A total of 719 respondents aged 16-19 years participated in the study (M=17.8; SD=1.11). The questionnaire battery consisted of the following research methodologies: the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF; Pontes, Griffiths, 2015), the Delaware School Climate Survey-Student Questionnaire (Bear et al, 2011), Perceived Parental Support Scale (PPS, Thorlindsson et al., 1998), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Diener, et. al., 1985). Results demonstrated that parental support acted as a mediator in the relationship between perceived life satisfaction and Internet gaming disorder in adolescents.
Keywords: internet gaming disorder; school climate; parental support; life satisfaction

Multiple mediating role of perceived social support in the relationship between self-esteem and positivity

Aykut Dündar, Mehmet Ali Yıldız
Adıyaman University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Department of Coaching Education, Adıyaman, Turkey
Adıyaman University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Psychology, Developmental Psychology Program, Adıyaman, Turkey
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the multiple mediating role of perceived social support in the relationship between self-esteem and positivity in current university students. This study included a total of 243 students studying at different universities across Turkey during 2020-2021 academic year and 96 of participants were female (39.5%) while 147 were male (60.5%). Research data were collected via Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multi-Dimensional Perceived Social Support Scale and Positivity Scale. In the analysis of research data Descriptive Statistics, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Ordinary Least Squares Regression-based approach and Bootstrap Method were employed. Based on the findings collected from research, it can be claimed that social support perceived from family and social support perceived from someone special mediated the relationship between self-esteem and positivity. It was thus determined that social support perceived from family is a stronger mediator than social support perceived from someone special. It also became clear that social support perceived from friends had no mediation role. Findings of the research were discussed and interpreted and suggestions were shared with relevant researchers in the final part of this study.
Keywords: positivity; perceived social support; self-esteem

Psychosomatic day-care clinic - a possible solution for improving mental health services in Romania

Lavinia Duică, Maria Totan, Oana Raluca Antonescu, Sînziana Călina Silișteanu, Gabriela Boța, Elisabeta Antonescu, Mihaela Racheriu
“Lucian Blaga” University, Faculty of Medicine, Victoriei street, 550024, Sibiu, Romania
„Dr. Gheorghe Preda” Clinical Psychiatric Hospital, “Dr. Dumitru Bagdazar” street, 550082, Sibiu, Romania
Clinical Hospital for Children, “George Baritiu” street, 550178, Sibiu Romania Romania
County Clinical Emergency Hospital, “Corneliu Coposu” street, 550245, Sibiu, Romania
“Ștefan cel Mare” University, Faculty of Medicine and Biological Sciences, Universitatii street, 720229, Suceava, Romania
Abstract
Psychosomatic disorders confront a myriad of challenges, including insufficient mental health community services, on the one hand, and physician rejection and stigmatization of psychiatric symptoms on the other. Unhealthy lifestyle choices interact in a negative way with the Romanian people’s health; these choices account for around half of the country's total mortality rate. So, the rate of heavy binge drinking is greater than the same rate in the European Union. Daily smokers rate in Romania is 1:5; overweight or obese represent approximately, half of the country's adult population; ischemic heart disease stroke being the second-largest death cause. Romania ranks first at the treatable mortality rate in Europe. We sought to establish the necessary grounds for including psychosomatic day-care clinics in the Romanian healthcare system.
Keywords: psychosomatic; Romania; psychosomatic day-care clinics

Career counselor's training needs in the context of lifelong career guidance policies

Silvia Tsvetanska
Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd, Sofia-1504, Bulgaria
Abstract
The paper discusses the concept of lifelong career guidance as a modern trend brought about by technological advancements and changes in the world of professions. The realization of this concept is linked to the role of career counselors in assisting modern people in making choices and being aware of their ability to cope with economic, social, and other challenges. The findings of two studies on the training needs of career counselors in Bulgaria and other EU countries are briefly described. Based on the research findings, conclusions are drawn about the need for counselors to obtain ongoing training aimed at improving social-emotional competence, working with digital resources, and networking skills.
Keywords: career guidance; career counselor; training needs; social-emotional competence

 

Type of sport- and gender-related personality features in the case of injured martial arts athletes

Ionuț Patenteu, Radu Predoiu, Andrei Bitang, Alexandra Predoiu, Sarah Adriana Nica
University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”, Faculty of Medicine, Eroii Sanitari 8, Bucharest, 050474, Romania
National University of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Constantin Noica 140, Bucharest, 060057, Romania; University of Craiova, Doctoral School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Brestei 146, Craiova, 200207, Romania
"Aurel Vlaicu" University of Arad, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Elena Dragoi 8, Arad, 310330, Romania
Abstract
The aim of the research was to highlight the differences in personality features between martial artists who suffered moderate and/or severe injuries and athletes who suffered only minor sports injuries. A sample of 111 senior martial arts athletes (89 males and 22 females) took part in the study, from striking combat sports (boxing, kick-boxing, taekwondo and karate), grappling combat sports (jiu-jitsu and judo), and Mixed Martial Arts. The Romanian adaptation of the Makarowski’s Questionnaire for risk-taking behavior, the Romanian adaptation of the Brief Resilience Scale, and the Romanian adaptation of the Makarowski's Sports Aggression Questionnaire have been used. Using ANOVA statistical procedures the existing differences between groups (formed with respect to gender and type of sport practiced), in terms of aggression, resilience and risk-taking behavior were examined. Athletes who reported moderate and/or severe injuries (and are more resilient) tend to attack more, are looking for stimulating situations and assume less calculated risks, being, also, more willing to win regardless of the costs and even breaking the rules of the game.
Keywords: aggression; risk-taking behavior; resilience; martial arts; sports injuries

Representation as the "basic cell" of psychological/structural organization

Violeta Mancaș
Doctoral School, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
This article aims to elaborate on some of the aspects that concern a series of interconnected and interdependent mental operations that begin during early development, between the mental processes of representation, symbolization, mentalization, a firm and authentic sense of self-identity, and meaning. The images engraved in different brain areas, as a result of the psychic process of representation, are intimately linked to the emergence of the sense of self-identity; it constitutes a basic building block of the boundary between internal and external reality, but also a condition for an individual to create and elaborate the meaning of his own existence. At the same time, we bring into discussion some aspects related to the meanings expressed by various psychiatric pathologies.
Keywords: mental processes; representation; symbolization; mentalization; self-identity; meaning; internal space; mental organization; neuropsychoanalysis

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