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Journal Vol. XI (LXXIII) - No. 1/2021

Editor’s note - Psychology, education and mental health in special times
Cristian Vasile
Petroleum Gas University of Ploiesti, Bd. Bucuresti, nr, 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
Periodically the world is confronting with special situations. Pandemics affected the population a few times until now in the history of humankind, but the current situation seems to be more special in the context of the increased liberty of humanity in the last 20 years or so. According to a few theoretical experimental approaches applied to the present situation, one could observe that the psychological development and, implicitly, the mental balance has been affected more in this pandemic period than in others.
The paper analyzes a few effects of the imposed social limitations on human psychological dynamics.
Keywords: pandemic; personality; development; psychology; education

The influence of parents’ educational practices on young learners’ social and academic adaptation
Gina Florentina Tudorache, Mihaela Badea
Petroleum – Gas University of Ploiești, #39 Bdv. București, Ploiești, 100680, Romania
The study starts from the overwhelming importance that the family has on the child’s development, as a result of the multitude of functions not found in other social groups, such as: biological function, procreation function, economic, psychoaffective and educational function. Although all parents’ purposeis the harmonious development of children from a cognitive, social and emotional point of view, under the influence of a variety of factors, they manifest educational practices that dose differently care and parental control. Thus, the study considers how parents’ action patterns can influence the social and academic adaptation of young school-age students. In this sense, the research sample is made of 18 primary school students whose school period was followed throughout the fundamental acquisition cycle.
Keywords: parental practices; warmth; control; autonomy; social adaptation; academic adaptation

Helping teenagers reconnect to learning - the power of supportive teachers to design autonomy
Cristina Tripon
Teacher Training and Social Sciences Department, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania
Teaching and Learning International Survey - TALIS (2019) reports that classroom climate is an important factor in student outcomes. The process of creating a productive learning environment in schools is a challenging dimension of students' autonomy. Related to school autonomy, the PISA results (2013) discovered that levels of school autonomy is related to student performance across some PISA countries (positive correlations), but is depending on some resources, especially when de autonomy significance is combined with accountability. The most used definition of learner autonomy is closely identified with the personal meaning of what the learner sees as important for itself and with the responsibility to develop new skills to progress in the metacognitive process, to be reflective in all itself actions, and to be motivate and self-aware. In this study, the interest is focused on the teachers and their implications on students' autonomy development. The implications of the learning interactions between teacher and students, the categories of teaching styles that influence the development of students' autonomy, the characteristics of teachers who develop autonomy (seniority in teaching, the quality of mentors, the subject field of teaching) are analyzed. The results emphasize that supportive teachers use quality educational relationships, stimulate students 'involvement in their own learning, and do not necessarily depend on teaching experience, teachers' age, time spent with students or the category of subject field teaching.
Keywords: supportive teachers; learner autonomy; teachers skills; learning interactions

Second-career teachers’ professional identity and imposter phenomenon: nexus and correlates
Predrag Živković
University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Education, Milana Mijalkovića 14, Jagodina 35 000, Serbia
The aim of the present study was to determine the connection between the prominent aspects of the second-career teachers’ professional identity and their imposterism. In addition, in a sample of one hundred and ninety-one second-career teachers, the relationship with some other psychological variables that we thought could be correlates and significant determinants was examined. Statistical analyzes highlight two-component solution for the identity structure (cooperation and students need) and two-component solution for the structure of the imposter phenomenon (true and strategic imposters). No statistically significant prediction and correlation were found between the components of professional identity and the components of imposterism.
Keywords: second-career teachers; professional identity; imposter phenomenon

A sense of coherence as a factor of resistance to stress of future specialists in socionomic professions
Halina Dubczak, Iwanna Lewko
”Maria Grzegorzewska” University, Institute of Psychology, Szczesliwicka, 40, Warsaw, Poland
Warsaw School of Economics, al. Niepodległości 162, Warsaw, Poland
The article presents the empirical study on the psychological features of a sense of coherence as a salutogenic factor that can positively influence the overcoming of diverse life stress by an individual.
The analysis was performed on a group of 396 students (including 226 university students, 170 students of vocational schools; 192 men and 204 women) aged 16-38 years. The study data were analyzed in several directions: by gender, type of educational institutions, resistance to stress, mental stress and locus of control. University students have significantly higher sense of coherence, comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness compared with vocational school students. The article shows that sense of coherence, comprehensibility, manageability can be used as a psychological criteria predicting resistance to stress of students studying in socionomic disciplines.
Keywords: vocational training; sense of coherence; stress; resistance to stress

Using animation films in formal activities at Natural Sciences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Instruction problems and models
Maria Eliza Dulamă, Sanda Vereş, Ioana Magdaș, Oana-Ramona Ilovan
Department of the Exact Sciences Didactics, Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education, Babeş-Bolyai University, 7 Sindicatelor Street, 400029, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania
“Tradition, Development, Innovation” Doctoral School of Didactics, Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education, Babeş-Bolyai University, 7 Sindicatelor Street, 400029, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, and “Lucian Blaga” Secondary School, Jibou, Sălaj, Romania
Department of Regional Geography and Territorial Planning, Faculty of Geography, and Territorial Identities and Development Research Centre, Babeş-Bolyai University, 5-7 Clinicilor Street, 400006, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania
Animation films were used frequently during online didactic activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have not identified research that focuses on the problems that teachers face when using animated films to enable students’ learning of Natural Sciences and on the training models that can be organized based on this resource. Therefore, we analysed the problems faced by teachers and, to solve them, we identified, analysed, and described several instruction models based on animation films: illustrative, expositive, interactive, flipped classroom, learning through discovery, and learning through simulation. We analysed the way to integrate them into the didactic activity and, finally, we realized some recommendations.
Keywords: geographical education; university education; primary grades; representations; online teaching and learning

Students' self-efficiacy in the virtual mathematics classroom
Nevenka Maras, Ružica Soldo, Marina Đuranović
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Teacher Education, Savska 77, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Technical Secondary School of Faust Vrančić, Držićeva 14, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Teacher Education, Savska 77, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
This research paper aims to asses the different sources of self-efficacy in solving mathematical problems on a sample of 240 students in the final grades of secondary vocational schools from the City of Zagreb. The conducted research determined elements that affect self-efficacy in solving mathematical problems and it sought to examine whether there are gender differences in the selfassessed level of self-efficacy in solving problems in the context of distance learning of mathematics.
Although it was established that male and female students do not differ in the self-assessed level of self-efficacy in solving mathematical problems, it was discovered that male and female students differ in the various factors determining their psychological states, as one of the dimensions affecting selfefficacy in solving mathematical problems – where female students manifest more negative physiological-emotional reactions to mathematics, while male students manifest less negative physiological-emotional reactions to mathematics.
Keywords: mathematics; self-efficacy; secondary school; virtual classroom; students

The relationship of gender with reading performance, reading enjoyment, perceived ability and perceived difficulty in a sample of Romanian students
Lavinia Șuteu, Mădălina Cristea, Liliana Ciascai
Babeș-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu, Cluj-Napoca, 400084, Romania
Difficulties in reading comprehension and gender differences are increasing concerns for the educational systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate gender differences concerning reading enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived reading difficulty and performance in reading. Using a secondary data analysis of the 2018 PISA survey, this research paper assessed the differences between boys and girls in reading literacy on a sample of Romanian students. Difficulties in reading comprehension were found to be an issue for most of the Romanian students while gender differences were present for all the analysed dimensions, girls outperforming boys in the reading performance, reading enjoyment and perceived competencies in reading but scoring lower levels of the perceived difficulty in reading. Further research is needed to develop intervention programmes.
Keywords: reading ability; reading comprehension; reading difficulty; reading enjoyment; reading gender differences; reading performance; reading skills.

The effects of locus of control on procrastination among undergraduates: the coping strategy as a mediator
Poh Chua Siah, Hui Qin Ang, Siew Man Chan, Ee Leng Wong
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar Campus, Malaysia
Procrastination is a common issue among undergraduate students. Studies have found that locus of control and coping strategies are associated with procrastination, and the relationships between locus of control and coping strategies. However, no study has examined the relationships among these three factors. This study aims to use the personality-coping-outcome theory as a framework to examine whether the coping strategy is a mediator for the effects of locus of control on procrastination. One hundred and fifty undergraduates were recruited by using the purposive sampling method. A crosssectional survey was used to collect data. The results showed that those participants with a higher internal locus of control are less likely to procrastinate when the problem-solving coping strategy is adopted. These findings suggested that a firm belief of controlling over one life episode does not necessarily change the procrastination. Programs can be designed to improve undergraduates’ understanding of adopting effective strategies to cope with their procrastination.
Keywords: Locus of control; procrastination; coping strategies; problem solving; avoidance; positive thinking; social support

Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy among the prime stakeholders in special education: a case of Saudi Arabia
Mona Saleh Alanazi
College of Arts & Science, Northern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia
Teachers, students, and parents of special children from selected schools in Saudi Arabia's Northern Border region took part in the study to provide data on their levels of emotional intelligence and selfefficacy beliefs in order to demonstrate their readiness to perform as per the set standards for their roles in the teaching and learning process of special/gifted learners. A sample of students (n=50) and teachers (n=24) from primary, middle and high schools responded to the study instruments on emotional intelligence and self-efficacy; parents (n=30) also participated in the study. Gender and educational status are the variables considered for parents, teachers and students. The results indicate a significant relation between the EI and SE among all the study groups in terms of gender and their educational status. Male teachers and parents have higher EI and SE than their female counterparts; higher EI has also been linked to higher SE. Uneducated parents register lower EI and SE than the educated ones. Similarly, male teachers have higher EI and SE than female teachers; high school teachers have higher EI and SE than primary and middle school teachers. Similarly, students too have reflected similar patterns.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence; self-efficacy; special education; stakeholders; Saudi Arabia

Linguistic adaptation and Romanian validation of the ”teachers’ self-efficacy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Inclusion” Scale (TSE-ASDI)
Cristina S. Sălăgean, Cristian N. Stan, Claudia Crișan
Doctoral School “Education, Reflection, Development”, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, 7 Sindicatelor Street, 400029, Romania
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, 7 Sindicatelor Street, 400029, Romania
Nowadays, more and more children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) attend mainstream kindergartens or schools. This study was intended to achieve a linguistic adaptation and validation of the ”Teachers’ Self-Efficacy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Inclusion” (TSE-ASDI) scale into Romanian. The linguistic translation and validation was carried out in stages, following a conceptual equivalence approach, including forward and backward translations, review and adaptation of the scale by experts and linguistic validation in pre-service and in-service teachers in which the psychometric properties were tested. The results showed that the Romanian version of the TSE-ASDI scale is reliable and valid and further testing of the instrument would be necessary in order to confirm its utility in Romania for both practice and research.
Keywords: Autism; Teacher Preparation; Teacher Self-Efficacy; Inclusion; Linguistic Validation

Place of physical activity in the leisure behaviour of students from Poland and Ukraine
Daniel Bakota, Arkadiusz Płomiński, Iryna Ierko
Faculty of Social Sciences, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Waszyngtona 4/8, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Faculty of Geography, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University in Lutsk, Voli Ave 13, 43025 Lutsk, Ukraine
The main objective of the study is to find out about physical activity of students from Poland and Ukraine, and its determining factors, as well as the amount of their free time. The study was conducted in March 2020 with 100 students from two universities surveyed (50 persons from each). They were students of Tourism and Recreation at the Jan Długosz University of Humanities and Sciences in Częstochowa and 50 students with major in Tourism at the Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University in Lutsk. The students surveyed were both undergraduate and graduate. No relationship was found between the distribution of gender and nationality (p = 0.799). There is also no relationship between the distribution of the amount of free time and nationality: on school days (p=0.062) and at weekends (p=0.294). The relationship of the distribution of practising physical activity in free time and a nationality (p = 0.029) was found. What is significant is also the impact of nationality on the distribution of responses (p=0.013) as for the analysis of who accompanies students during physical activity in their free time. In turn, there is no relationship between the distribution of students' motivation to practise physical activity in free time and nationality (p=0.175). Physical activity in free time is practised by 92.00% of students from Poland and 76.00% of students from Ukraine. Teachers play the leading role in the promotion of physical activity in free time among Polish (46.00%) and Ukrainian (64.00%) students. The most popular form of physical activity is walking (Poles 52.00%, Ukrainians 70.00%).
Keywords: physical activity; leisure time; physical culture; health; youth

The psychological correlates of intersubjectivity in early adolescence
Maria Nakonechna, Svitlana Zheliezniak
Nizhyn Gogol State University, Nizhyn, 16608, Ukraine
Pedagogical Personnel’s Professional Development Municipal Center of Nizhyn City Council in Chernigiv Region, Nizhyn, 16600, Ukraine
The topicality of the investigated problem is connected with the necessity to study the positive, constructive aspects of human nature. The concept of intersubjectivity suggests that interpersonal communication can facilitate mutual growth and development of the interaction participants. This leads us from studying the personal traits to the investigation of interpersonal processes. The research aimed to investigate the interconnections of intersubjectivity with intellectual development, aggressiveness, self-image, and the sociometric status among adolescents empirically. The negative correlational link was found between the level of intellectual development and self-image, which can be understood through the concept of critical thinking, as an intellectually developed adolescent can be critical towards him/herself, and it can result in law self-image.
Keywords: intersubjectivity; personality; aggression; interaction; intellectual development; adolescence

Features of tactical and psychological training models in sports climbing at youth level
Antonia Trifu, Monica Iulia Stănescu, Florin Pelin
The National University of Physical Education and Sports, 140 Constantin Noica Str., 060057, Bucharest, Romania
To enhance the Romanian climbers’ performance, an intervention on the tactical and psychological components of the training is needed. We believe that this intervention should be made from a young age. The objective of this paper is to highlight the current training models for sports climbing in the literature and provide a critical analysis on them, so that we can define some project-programmes for the training of young climbers. The systematic review of the literature has identified that the variables most correlated with climbing performance are: mental characteristics (personality traits, temperament, locus of control and tactics), technical characteristics (coordination and technical abilities) and physical characteristics (flexibility, fitness and efficiency). We have also observed how efficient some practical and methodological approaches are in climbing training.
Keywords: climbing; tactics; psychological preparation; training; sport

Direct and indirect effects of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity on sensation seeking in youth (19-25 years old)
Stanislava Stoyanova, Nikolay Ivantchev
Department of Psychology, South-West University “Neofit Rilski”, Blagoevgrad 2700
This study was focused on the relationships between sensation seeking, functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in youth. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity on sensation seeking in youth controlled for gender and age in the group of 19–25-year-old. Radoslavova & Velichkov’s (2005) self-report paper-and-pencil questionnaire was used to measure sensation seeking, functional and dysfunctional types of impulsivity among 764 students. Dysfunctional impulsivity was directly and indirectly related to sensation seeking mediated by functional impulsivity and being statistically controlled for age and gender. Functional impulsivity also was directly and indirectly related to sensation seeking mediated by dysfunctional impulsivity with gender and age as controlled confound variables. Dysfunctional impulsivity had larger direct and indirect effects as a mediator on sensation seeking than the corresponding effects of functional impulsivity on sensation seeking controlling for age and gender. These findings suggest the possibility for existence of some deficiencies in the speed, accuracy, and effectiveness of processing information, making decisions, and implementing actions during the search for optimal stimulation among youth.
Keywords: dysfunctional impulsivity; functional impulsivity; sensation seeking; youth

Interferences between psychology and psychiatry - vulnerability versus mental fragility in schizophrenia and delusional disorder
Andrei Coșman, Alexandru Pană, Ioana Rădulescu
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 90 Panduri Str., 050663, Bucharest, Romania
”Alex. Obregia” Cljnical Hospital for Psychiatry, 10 Berceni Str., 041914 Bucharest, Romania
The aim of this paper is a didactic one, namely the separation of concepts of vulnerability in psychosis, with cognitive, thinking, affective, relational and motivational patterns of patients with schizophrenia, explaining the diagnosis of emotional schizophrenia after DSM VI, which although has a long history, is still a controversial one and excluded from DSM V. The paper also discusses brief psychoses.
Vulnerability in psychoses is both psychological, hereditary, genetic or potentially related to the pathology of the neurotransmitters involved, and it is also based on concepts such as: social rejection, disabilities (predominantly auditory), immigration, inability to adapt to cultural patterns, an emotional climate characterized by expressing excessive emotions, an onset with significant stressors or a postpartum hormonal situation.
Keywords: vulnerability; mental fragility; psychosis; schizophrenia; delusional disorder; prognosis; schizoaffective disorder; brief psychotic disorders; precipitating factors


Suicide and parasuicide pathology in everyday life
Raluca Vârgolici, Eduard Lungu
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 90 Panduri Str., 050663, Bucharest, Romania
Suicide (derived from the words sui = self and cidium = killing) means any case in which death results directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act, committed by the victim him/herself, who knows that it must produce this result (Durkheim). Pseudo-suicidal behaviours (false killings). The notion of suicide tends to be replaced by that of suicidal behaviour, which includes: successful suicide, suicide attempts, suicide ideas, presuicidal syndrome. From the definition of suicide, it follows that it is considered as such that act in relation to which the subject evaluates the consequences. Implicitly, this category will not include deaths that occurred during confusional states, which are accidental (although this article makes examples, exposures, references, differential diagnoses with this pathology as well), crepuscular, epileptic moods, dementia.
Keywords: suicide; hallucinations; delusional idea; depression; psychosys; parasuicide

Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Identity Disorder
Bogdan Eduard Patrichi, Cristina Ene, Cristina Rîndaşu, Arina Cipriana Trifu
”Alex. Obregia” Clinical Hospital for Psychiatry, 10 Berceni Str., 041914 Bucharest, Romania
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 90 Panduri Str., 050663, Bucharest, Romania
Military Medical Institute, Str. Institutul Medico-Militar 3-5, 010919 Bucharest, Romania
The current paper aims to describe and exemplify the pathology that is increasingly common in contemporary society, compared to the Freudian period in which repression was dominating.
Dissociative disorders are usually associated with overwhelming stress, which can be generated by traumatic life events, accidents or disasters experienced directly or witnessed by the individual, or unbearable inner conflicts, which force the mind to separate incompatible or unacceptable pieces of information and feelings.
Keywords: apatho-abulic dimension; behavioral dimension; depressive dimension; alcoholism; schizophrenia; family medical history; family support; social support

Somatoform and conversion disorders as psychological defences
Elena Andreea Mut, Cristina Pălădoiu, Monica Stănescu
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 90 Panduri Str., 050663, Bucharest, Romania
Conversion disorder is the clinical situation in which one or more symptoms can present deficits that affect motor or sensory function and suggest a neurological or organic condition. Psychological factors are decisive, and they usually include a major anxiety generated by intrapsychic conflicts, which are converted by unconscious defense mechanism into symptoms. The symptoms are not intentionally provoked or simulated nor are explained by organic suffering or substance consumption. They affect the quality of life of the person who presents significant deficits such as motor, sensory, convulsive or mixed. It may also occur a lack of coordination, ataxia, paralysis, tremor, aphonia, difficulties at swallowing, loss of sensitivity, anesthesia that does not follow anatomical nervous trajectories, blindness or mental deafness. Consciousness is not altered, but a condition of "la belle indifference" appears which is rather associated with histrionic personality disorders and what the patients imagine about their own illness or suffering. This condition is unstable and changing. The primary gain is the expression of an unconscious psychological conflict through a somatic symptom by reducing anxiety and keeping conflict out of consciousness. The secondary gain is external and includes attention and care from caregivers or others.
Keywords: apatho-abulic dimension; behavioral dimension; depressive dimension; alcoholism; schizophrenia; family medical history; family support; social support

Electroconvulsive therapy awareness as approach for psychology students
Simona Trifu, Elena Mănicu, Milu Petruţ, Adrian Nicu Lupu
Departament of Neurosciences, UMF Carol Davila, 37 Dionisie Lupu Str., Bucharest, Romania
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 90 Panduri Str., 050663, Bucharest, Romania
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) generated many controversies over time. The clinical literature establishing the efficacy of ECT is among the most solid for any medical treatment, and has been extensively reviewed; however, both practitioners and patients seem to be still reluctant on this issue.
In the following review we are aiming at raising the level of awareness among the interested parties regarding ECT. Epidemiological evidence shows that there are a growing number of cases in which ECT has a great benefit, among the most notable being pharmacological resistant depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia and others. Current guidelines seem to be overly-prudent regarding ECT indications, in spite of a growing body of research attesting to its importance. Side effects of ECT range from somatic to cognitive and, with a careful prior examination, most are acute and can be managed in a few minutes. An exception to this is the cognitive impairment, which can last from a few hours to a few weeks and presents a reason to reconsider ECT in elderly patients with an important preexisting cognitive impairment.
Keywords: electroconvulsive therapy; neuropsychiatry; schizophrenia; depressive disorder; bipolar disporder; catatonia; cognitive impairment; stigma

Variables associated with the modalities of psychic adaptation (coping mechanisms and psychic defense mechanisms) in depressive disorders
Dănuț Ioan Crașovan, Laura Patricia Farcaș
Babeș-Bolyai University (UBB University Center in Reșița), 320085 Resita, Traian Vuia Square, No. 1 - 4, Caras-Severin District, România, https://uem.ro/
SPER Institute, Splaiul Independentei, No. 17, Bucharest, România.
The study lists a series of research on the particularities of psychic adaptation in depressive disorders, respectively psychological defense mechanism and coping mechanisms. At the same time, the study analyzes the existing relationships, in depressive disorders case, between coping and variables such as tools and the methodology for assessing the coping process, the relevance and usefulness of the coping process in the clinic and the treatment of psychopathology as information processing, the personality and typology of the human subject, the type of disorder diagnosed, age of the human subject, locus of control, parental style, life events, personal experience, adherence to medication, gender, economic situation, profession, culture/environment, presence or absence of depressive disorders.
Keywords: depressive disorders; psychic adaptation; coping mechanisms; psychic defense mechanisms

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