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Journal Vol. X (LXXII) - No. 2/2020

Evaluation and its motivational impact. Case study - future primary school teachers
Emil Stan, Cristina Georgiana Safta
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieşti, 39 Bucureşti Blvd., Ploieşti 100680, Romania

Our study starts from the assumption that a major issue of the Romanian education is the issue of motivation. As Dragoș Grigorescu put it, „in the context of research in the field of education sciences, the idea of motivation is forever present, almost every treatise on pedagogy or the psychology of learning comprises a section that is dedicated to motivation.” (Grigorescu, 2020, p. 16) In terms of learning, we accepted Chirca/ Panișoară's perspective: „Learning may be defined as “a process that leads to change, which occurs as a result of experience, and increases the potential of improved performance and future learning” (Ambrose et al., 2010, p. 3).

This change takes place within an individual’s opinions, beliefs, knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests, habits etc. (Mangal, 2007). Thus, learning goes beyond the simple acquisition of information and generates continuous transformation of human behaviour.” (Chirca/ Panișoară, 2020, p. 43) The SDT (Self Determination Theory) laid the theoretical grounds and the issue addressed was that of the influence of oral exams on the intrinsic motivation of freshmen majoring in Education Sciences, Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Romania (105 female students); our interest was piqued by the fact that these students are aspiring preschool and primary school professors, which means they will have a significant influence on shaping the minds and behaviors of children between 3 and 10 years of age, i.e. when their brain plasticity is very high; also, their evaluative behavior will significantly influence the self-perception of these children. The 105-students sample was divided into two groups: the first counted 57 students and filled in a 10 items questionnaire, before the examination took place; the second group counted 48 students who filled in the same questionnaire, but after the examination took place.
Keywords: evaluation; self determination theory; autonomy; competence; internal motivation


Reading and writing curriculum-based assessment at the end of preparatory class - validation study
Carolina Bodea Hațegan, Dorina Talaș, Raluca Nicoleta Trifu
Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, Sindicatelor no.7, Cluj-Napoca,400029, Romania
Departament of Medical Education, Medical Psychology Discipline, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iuliu Hațieganu, Victor Babeș, no 43, 400012, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Reading and writing are the most important educational skills which start to be developed even from the first stages of the primary educational system (in Romania, beginning with the preparatory class, where enrolled children are aged 6-7 years old, starting with 2012 and our national curricular reorganization). The curriculum-based assessment seemed to be the most relevant way in approaching reading and writing, to be able to ensure functional educational skills for pupils. Thus, our goal was to elaborate a probe which enhance reading and writing curricular assessment at the end of preparatory class and to offer standardized norms. 1058 participants were enrolled in our study, reflecting Romanian population stratification, both from rural and urban educational locations. Results proved that ”The Probe for Assessing Reading and Writing Skills at the end of Preparatory Class” offers a unitary perspective regarding reading and writing skills, fluency items as well as phonological processing items are relevant in building these two academic abilities, whereas comprehension assessment proved to be crucial in this respect.
Keywords: reading, writing, fluency, comprehension, phonological processing, curricular approach

Development of students’ disciplinary literacy through reflective practice: Ukrainian case
Iryna Liashenko, Maryna Rebenko, Victor Rebenko
Sumy State University, Educational and Research Institute for Business Technologies, Petropavlivska Street, 57, Sumy, 40000, Ukraine
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Faculty of Information Technology, Bohdana Havrylyshyna Street, 24, Kyiv,04116, Ukraine
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony Street, 15, Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine
Most studies on critical thinking concentrate on developing strategies for better results in learning and life. Not enough research considers critical thinking as one of the most important components of professional competency. Thus, this research investigates how developing critical thinking skills links with arising professional competency, which forms the disciplinary literacy. In particular, this study suggests that the application of reflective strategies in professional communication significantly evolves critical thinking skills. First, a conceptual framework of the importance of critical thinking in practice and life was synthesized from the academic and scientific literature. Then the level of reflection of the groups of students of Ukrainian universities was analyzed at the observation stage. After defining the poor results, the students were taught a reflective strategy course, which significantly increased the required critical thinking skills for their professional situations. Measures of correlation were used to describe the relationships between the reflective strategies and the improved results in critical thinking skills. The results provided support for the conceptual framework with the students' increased professional competency in problem communication issues within their professional setting.
Learning reflective strategies may be an appropriate way to arise critical thinking skills with the students. The implications for academics, teachers, and researcher in this field is that the reflective strategies are one of the tools to improve the critical thinking and problem-solving skills as an integral part of disciplinary literacy.
Keywords: critical thinking; reflective practice; disciplinary literacy; professional competency; university students; ESP

Clinical knowledge in the training of future psychologists. Teaching the basics in Psychopathology and Psychiatry
Simona Trifu
“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 37 Dionisie Lupu str., 020021, Bucharest, Romania
After more than 15 years of teaching university courses in Psychopathology and Psychiatry within the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Bucharest, I want to present in this article a minimum knowledge related to the field, which I consider that must be acquired by students attending a faculty of psychology, before completing the bachelor’s studies. Emphasis should always be placed on the practical part, on participating in groups of case presentations, on expressing opinions, on supervisions and interviews, on learning to use their own countertransference besides psychometric aspects. Also, a special place is held by the synergy of clinical diagnostic psychology with the psychotherapeutic intervention area.
Keywords: teaching; psychopathology; learning; psychiatric diagnosis; mental structuring

Students’ attitudes towards mathematics and their perceptions of teacher support, enthusiasm, classroom management and their own behavior
Tomislava Vidić, Marina Đuranović
Faculty of Teacher Education, Savska 77, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Students’ attitudes towards mathematics as well as positive and negative dispositions towards it have a key role in student achievement in mathematics. Hence, it is important to determine the ways of influencing the formation of positive attitudes. 290 students from the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th grade of a primary school in Zagreb were participants of this research. It examined how students perceive enthusiasm, support and classroom management, their inclination toward misbehavior and attitudes towards mathematics. The results show that younger students (2nd and 4th grade) have more positive perceptions of teacher enthusiasm, support and classroom management than older students (6th and 8th grade). Besides, students who assess support, enthusiasm and classroom management highly and rarely misbehave have more positive attitudes towards mathematics than students whose perceptions are average or below average.
Keywords: attitudes towards mathematics; teacher's enthusiasm; teacher's support; classroom management; student misbehavior

Pragmatism and identity crises during the personal development of adolescents. Case Study
Dorin Opriş
"1 Decembrie 1918" University of Alba Iulia, Unirii Blvd., 15-17, Alba Iulia, 510009, Romania
This paper includes the results of a research that aimed to investigate, on a sample of high school students in Romania, the relationship between school employing, the results obtained by them in school and the choice of attitudes-values with major moral and social impact.
The research results show a polarization of high school students' interest in continuing their studies in academia. The percentage of girls who intend to pursue bachelor's and master's studies is almost 50% higher than that of boys. Also, the percentage of students with very good learning outcomes correlates with that of respondents who see continuing their studies as the best way to successfully continue the course of personal development.
Keywords: education; globalization; post-communism; attitudes-values; Romania

Understanding the effects of modality principle and its impact in developing effective multimedia learning materials: a literature review
Chin-Soon Cheah
Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia
Multimedia elements have been existing for a long time. The usage was not accentuated as technology available in the past was unable to accommodate the needs of developers and users due to various reasons. However, with the advancement technology and rapid evolving of technology development, it has made it accessible and available to the mass. Plethora of studies have been done and results show that the effectiveness of multimedia learning materials in the education field was undeniable.
Multimedia has shape the future of education by providing the flexibility to the learners beyond the class room setting and also in terms of location, size, space and time. Learners can learn via the internet anywhere, anytime and available 24/7 using multimedia technology. Despite of all the advantages and benefits mentioned, the main factor that contributes the most is the development of effective multimedia learning materials. The effectiveness of multimedia learning materials are determine by a few core principles introduced by Mayer (2005). According to the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML), modality principle is one of the important principle that needs attention during the development of an effective multimedia teaching material. Hence, this article review the empirical literature pertaining to the effects of modality principle and its impact in developing effective multimedia learning materials. Articles chosen for this review were carefully filtered based on the important factors and benefits of multimedia elements. It reviews on the important aspects related to the education field. Brief explanation of the CTML is included to explain the underlying theory in developing effective multimedia learning materials. After that, review on the importance of multimedia learning material and the impact of modality principle in different education subjects is present. The article end with a discussion regarding the possible research gaps and future research area in this field of education and other potential sectors.
Keywords: cognitive theory of multimedia learning; literature review; modality principle multimedia; multimedia principle

Online university education during the COVID-19 pandemic. How efficient are the adapted instruction models?
Maria Eliza Dulamă, Oana-Ramona Ilovan
Department of the Exact Sciences Didactics, Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education, Babeş-Bolyai University, 7 Sindicatelor Street, 400029, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania
Department of Regional Geography and Territorial Planning, Faculty of Geography, and Territorial Identities and Development Research Centre, Babeş-Bolyai University, 5-7 Clinicilor Street, 400006, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania
In the context of the coronavirus pandemic and of transferring face-to-face academic activities to online, we analyse several e-learning solutions in Geography university education, from the perspective of three components: e-communication, e-training, and e-assessment. The aim of this research is to investigate the use of photographs to enable learning of Geography during the educational process organized synchronously and asynchronously at Babeş-Bolyai University, in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. After analyzing the online activities realized in the virtual classes on the Microsoft Teams platform, we identified, discussed, and represented schematically three instruction models, with their advantages and disadvantages, considering the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. The efficiency of these models depends on the features of the discipline and on professor’s competence level in specialty and in didactic transposition.
Keywords: geographical education; photographs; interactive teaching; flipped classroom; Microsoft Teams

The role of psychotrauma in the onset and the evolution of the paranoid schizophrenia
Sîrbu Roxana Cerasela, Glăvan Daniela Gabriela, Duică Lavinia Corina, Strunoiu Livia Mihaela, Sîrbu Alexandru Adonis Mihai, Bădescu Ștefan, Cara Monica Laura, Pîrlog Mihail Cristian
University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Doctoral School, Petru Rares Street 2, Craiova 200349, Romania
University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Craiova, Faculty of Medicine, Psychiatry Department, Petru Rares Street 2, Craiova 200349, Romania
University Lucian Blaga Sibiu, Faculty of Medicine, Psychiatry Department, Sibiu, Lucian Blaga Street 2A, 550169, Romania
University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Craiova, Faculty of Medicine, Petru Rares Street 2, Craiova 200349, Romania
University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Craiova, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health Department, Petru Rares Street 2, Craiova 200349, Romania
University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Craiova, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Sociology Department, Petru Rares Street 2, Craiova 200349, Romania
Psychotraumas from childhood and maturity are directly involved in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia, correlating with the biological and biochemical risk factors. In as sample of 248 subjects diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, the presence of the psychotrauma within 9-15 years age was correlated with common psychological features, low socio-economic status and large number of episodes of disease that cause multiple readmissions. Thus, it becomes extremely important the early identification of the positive history for psychotraumatic events in patients with paranoid schizophrenia, as well as when psychotrauma occurred, in order to adopt a complex therapeutic management, including interventions too.
Keywords: paranoid schizophrenia; psychotrauma; global functioning; cognitive deficit


Adolescence period. Sanogenetic narcissism. Narcissism of self-alienation
Alexandra Popescu, Amelia Damiana Trifu
“Alex. Obregia” Clinical Hospital for Psychiatry, 10 Berceni Str., 041914, Bucharest, Romania
Medical Military Institute, 3-5 Str. Institutul Medico-Militar, 010919, Bucharest, Romania
This article aims to discuss situations at the limit between the need for the intervention of a psychologist and the opportunity for psychiatric consultations, focusing on the issue of conduct disorders, theft, which can take on different meanings at this age, addictions of various types (toxicophiles or online media addictions). An important role is held by the approach of narcissism, the work distinguishing between sanogenetic narcissism, "guardian of life" and narcissism that risks sending into isolation and existential loneliness, when the psychologist loses the communication bridges with the suffering adolescent.
Keywords: adolescence; narcisism; selfesteem; personality structure; selfie

An investigation of the mediator role of emotional regulation in the relationship between cognitive flexibility and psychological symptoms in adolescents
Funda Yıldız, Bülent Gündüz
M.A., Ministry of National Education of Turkey, İstanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof., Mersin University, Mersin Turkey
In this study, it is aimed to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation in the relationship between cognitive flexibility and psychological symptoms in adolescents. 554 adolescents between 14 and 19 years of age were included in the research designed in the relational survey model. The research data were collected through the Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and Personal Information Form. As a result, the finding that emotion regulation difficulty has a full mediating role in the relationship between cognitive flexibility and depression, anxiety, negative sense of self and somatization scores has been reached. Another important finding of the study is that the difficulty in emotion regulation, is a suppression variable between cognitive flexibility and hostility.
Keywords: adolescents; cognitive flexibility; psychological symptoms; emotion regulation difficulty; direct and indirect relations

Mood disorders in children due to COVID-19 pandemic
Elena Claudia Mihai
Petroleum-Gas University, Ploiesti, Romania
The COVID-19 pandemic has had important effects on many aspects of our lives. The children are one of the most
affected cathegories of the pandemic’s changes. The lockdown that occurred in many countries, the new type of schooling, the digitalisation in education, the limited connection with friends and with classmates, the reduced physical activity, the intrafamilial violence, the medical conditions of the parents that suffered by COVID-19 or by thus economical affects are only a few of the causes of emotional disorders of children. Many studies reported anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, inattentions, irritability, grief related symptoms. In this study we’ve made a review of the papers that exposed the most frequent mood disorders in children, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The solutions identified by the authors were also investigated.
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; education; mood disorders in children; digitalisation; telehealth; technology; resilience

Learning as a student the diagnostic criteria and understanding schizophrenia. Between genetic, instinctual, biochemical, clinical and psychodynamic
Mădălina Nicoleta Istrate, Ana Maria Vioreanu, Antonia Ioana Trifu
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 90 Panduri Str., 050663, Bucharest, Romania
Medical Military Institute, 3-5 Str. Institutul Medico-Militar, 010919, Bucharest, Romania
The present article presents old descriptive psychiatric perspectives (such as Bleuer’s and Schneider's criteria), passing through Crown's classification, which combines organicity with emotional flattening belonging to negative symptoms, premorbid structure with response to treatment, reaching diagnostic differences between DSV-IV-TR and DSM-5, where subtypes are eliminated. Finally, the proper functionality of these patients matters, alongside social integration, in order to be able to propose a model of acceptance, by virtue of the desire to increase their social functioning. Currently, modern psychiatry no longer focuses on the positive dimension of schizophrenia hallucinations and delusions), but instead, it focuses on the decrease of the “existential drive" and their inability to cope with life in general. Thus, the present article represents a review, from the biological pole of genetic vulnerability, to the perspective of community reintegration, through a broad recovery vision.
Keywords: schizophrenia: criteria; cognition; treatment; emotional flattering; organicity

The psychic structure of the addict patient from a psychodynamic perspective
Ana Bianca Onisei, Cristiana Biana Dumitru, Arina Cipriana Trifu
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 90 Panduri Str., 050663, Bucharest, Romania
Medical Military Institute, 3-5 Str. Institutul Medico-Militar, 010919, Bucharest, Romania
Apparently, only some drugs are physically addictive, but all of them are psychologically addictive. Although some people try to minimize the role of psychological dependence, considering that if the patient does not go into withdrawal then the recovery will have good chances. It seems that all psychological aspects related to substance use (intake, abuse, dependence) are important factors in the therapeutic process.
Keywords: toxicomania; addictive personality; depressivity; family enviorement; psychotherapy

The impact of socio-cultural factors in addiction comorbidities
Florentina Stan, Ana Miruna Drăgoi, Radu-Virgil Costea
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 90 Panduri Str., 050663, Bucharest, Romania
”Alex. Obregia” Cljnical Hospital for Psychiatry, 10 Berceni Str., 041914 Bucharest, Romania
”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 37 D. Lupu Str., 020021 Bucharest, Romania
This research was carried out on a group of 88 patients, hospitalized in the Clinical Hospital of Psychiatry with the main diagnosis of axis I of schizophrenia and who associated alcoholism complications, being constituted 2 groups, with a follow-up period of 6 months from hospitalization.
Using the experimental design of test-retest type and the t test for independent samples, the hypotheses related to the apatho-abulic, non-behavioral and depressive dimensions in terms of anticraving medication, family and social support were confirmed.
Keywords: apatho-abulic dimension; behavioral dimension; depressive dimension; alcoholism schizophrenia; family medical history; family support; social support

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