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Journal Vol. X (LXXII) - No. 1/2020

A psychology of crisis
Cristian Vasile*
Petroleum Gas University of Ploiesti, Bd. Bucuresti, nr, 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
The actual crisis has many negative implications, not only because of the virus expansion or because of the social activities limitation, but also because of the unexpected effects of these changes. Educational and psychological effects are addressed in a few points.
Keywords: crisis; psychology; education; mental health

The level of student’s creativity and their attitude to the project-based learning
Zuzana Chmelárová, Ladislav Pasiar, Dominika Vargová
University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of National Economy, Department of Pedagogy, Dolnozemská cesta 1, Bratislava 852 35, Slovak republic.
University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of National Economy, Department of Pedagogy, Dolnozemská cesta 1, Bratislava 852 35, Slovak republic.
University of Economics in Bratislava, Faculty of Applied Languages, Department of Linguistics and Translation, Dolnozemská cesta 1, Bratislava 852 35, Slovak republic.
The article presents the results of a study aimed at verifying the relation of level of student´s creativity and their attitude to the project-based learning (PBL). The research sample consisted of 109 students from the University of Economics. The data was obtained through Torrance's creativity test, a questionnaire to identify students' attitudes to PBL, a questionnaire to find out the characteristics of a teacher supporting and unsupporting creativity.
Research has not confirmed the positive impact of PBL on students' level of creativity in the field of fluency and originality, nor the ability of the higher level of creativity to change the attitude of students towards the PBL to be more positive in general or in terms of the studied aspects - interestingness, ability to motivate, popularity, ability to develop personal traits of students.
Keywords: project-based learning; student´s creativity; creativity supporting teacher

Curiosity, intrinsic motivation and the pleasure of knowledge
Dragoș Grigorescu
Petroleum Gas University of Ploiesti, Bd. Bucuresti, nr, 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
Human behavior is a research topic that unites the explanatory efforts of psychology, ethology, but also pedagogy. One of the basic ideas common to all these areas is motivation. The purpose of this paper is to show that the idea of curiosity is a fundamental concept of intrinsic motivation. The analysis begins from the biology of curiosity offered by ethology and reaches the most representative and current theory of intrinsic motivation (self-determination theory SDT). Whether we are talking about satisfying an innate need for exploration or computational models of intrinsic motivation, curiosity is the red thread that leads us to a curiosity-based pedagogy. If we want more intrinsically motivated students to turn knowledge into an ingredient of well-being, then curiosity-based learning may be the best way.
Keywords: intrinsic motivation; curiosity; self-determination theory; ethology

Students–teachers’ communication competence: basic social communication skills and interaction involvement
Dragana Bjekića, Lidija Zlatić, Milevica Bojović
University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Svetog Save 65, Čačak 32000, Serbia
University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Education, Trg Svetog Save 36, Užice 31000, Serbia
University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Agronomy, Cara Dušana, Čačak 32000, Serbia
Current teacher pre-service education draws attention to communication competence as a highly important component of teacher professional competencies. The study explores the social communication skills and interaction involvement of two student–teacher generations. 195 students–teachers educated at the departments of primary school class teacher education, answered the items of two instruments – Social Skills Inventory and Interaction Involvement Scale. The analysis of the quantitative data indicates that there are no differences in the degree of development and the structure of social communication competence. The correlations between basic social skills components and interaction involvement components are significant. Student-teachers’ self-assessed communication skills are developed at a moderate level, thusly being a proper basis for advancement in this domain.
Keywords: communication competence; social competence; social communication skills; interaction involvement; student–teacher

Connectedness behind social distancing in times of Covid-19: Qualitative analysis of civic engagement of students and teachers in Romania
Alina S. Rusu
Department of Special Education, Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education, Babes-Bolyai University, Sindicatelor 7 Street, 400029, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania
Social isolation and the switch to remote forms of education represent strong challenges in terms of planning and implementing direct in-person volunteering and Service-Learning activities. However, in many countries, experts in Service-Learning have started to observe and document cases of community-oriented activities involving cooperation between teachers, students and community partners in times of pandemic. The paper presents a qualitative analysis of several cases of civic engagement of Higher Education students and teachers in Romania in March 2020, which were presented by local and national media channels. The collection process of civic engagement cases represents an initiative of the European Observatory of Service-Learning in Higher Education, aiming to share and discuss from the perspective of Service-Learning pedagogy and solidarity the transformational stories in Europe and around the world reflecting the “Civic engagement of students and teachers in times of Covid-19”. These cases might serve either as current examples of building reflective exercises in online classes in the direction of empathy and civic responsibility development of students, or as solid points for the justification of the need of Service-Learning institutionalization in
order to be prepared to face similar challenges in the future through civic participation.
Keywords: community-oriented pedagogy; civic participation; pandemic; solidarity

Study on Romanian students’ digital level and learning styles
Ruxandra Claudia Chirca, Ion-Ovidiu Pânișoară
University of Bucharest, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Șos. Panduri 90, Bucharest 050657, Romania
The purpose of this study is to identify Romanian students’ digital level, and their preferences in terms of learning styles. The current technological environment has brought forward a new type of student, whose development has occurred concurrently with technological evolution. Whether he is labelled “member of the Z generation”, “digital native” of “member of the Net generation”, the modern student uses technology from an early age and, when involved in the learning process, he demands immediate feedback, fast access to information and interactive content presentation. He expects these not only in his interaction with technology, but in school as well. In this context, it becomes the teacher’s responsibility to be aware of his/ her students’ learning profiles and to provide students with a training path that meets their particularities.
Keywords: digital native; digital level; learning style

College drop-out – between school failure and professional reorientation
Cristina Georgiana Safta, Emil Stan
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieşti, 39 Bucureşti Blvd., Ploieşti 100680, Romania
Drop-out that occurs before earning a BA plagues the educational systems in numerous European countries, and its effects are felt on multiple levels: individual, institutional and social. Analysing college drop-out in the Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti revealed a drop-out rate of 40%. In this context, the University’s Centre for Career Counseling conducted a survey with the following objectives: elaborating a thorough analysis of the drop-out; identifying the main categories of causes; finding possible solutions to reduce the drop-out rate. The research
methods were the focus-group and analysing the official documents. The analysis and interpretation of results allowed for the identification of the main risk factors in the case of college drop-out and generated solutions meant to reduce this phenomenon.
Keywords: college drop-out; school failure; professional reorientation

Extracurricular activity of engineering students: trends and motives
Nataliia Kholiavko, Tetiana Detsiuk, Olena Tarasenko
National University of “Chernihiv Polytechnic”, 14035, Chernihiv, Ukraine
The purpose of the article is to develop scientifically applied recommendations on the motivation of students to participate in the extra-curricular activities of universities. To conduct the pedagogical experiment, author's questionnaire was developed. The pedagogical experiment was conducted for students of engineering and technical specialties. The authors concluded the necessity improvement of extra-curricular work with engineering students. Three main directions of such improvement were identified: informing, profiling, motivation. The authors have proposed to initiate the development of interdisciplinary projects that extend the boundaries of inter-faculty interaction and provide for the integration of the classroom and extracurricular work of the university.
Keywords: higher education institution; extra-curricular activities; economic digitization; internationalization of scientific and educational space; engineering students; soft skills; hard skills

Leading students to self-reflect about critical thinking in stem-evidence from gender differences
Cristina Tripon, Simona Găbureanu
Department of Social Sciences, Research Institute of University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Teaching Career Teacher Training and Social Sciences Department, Romania
In scientific literature, digital literacy and ICT literacy are defined by emphasizing the importance of higher-order thinking skills for performing various tasks in the digital environment. According to the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), “digital literacy is more than technological know-how: it includes a wide variety of ethical, social and reflective practices that are embedded in work, learning, leisure and daily life”.
The present research investigates whether there are statistically significant differences between the results obtained by female students and male students (within the critical thinking competence), in case of applying a self-perception instrument of critical thinking, consisting of 6 dimensions: Self - regulation, Explanation, Evaluation, Inference, Analysis, Interpretation. The correlation between the 6 dimensions is also analyzed and there are described ways of developing them, from the teaching perspective.
Keywords: critical thinking; gender differences; STEM education.

Teaching challenges for handling difficult students
Lorenc Barjami
Marin Barleti University, Permet, 6401, Albania
School is the most important educational and socialization institution and it creates the first sense of employment to all students. One of the complex challenges is “the handling of difficult students it means the children suffering from psychological difficulties such as the SEBD(social-emotional and behavioral problems) The main goal of this study is to shed light on the teachers ‘attitudes regarding their skills in the handling of students with psychological difficulties, mostly students diagnosed with SEBD. This is a qualitative study with quantitative elements.Having in mind the conclusions of this study can be said that there are statistically significant differences between teachers ‘age, teachers ‘gender, and the level of teachers’ training and students with SEBD and other psychological difficulties
Keywords: Pupils with SEBD (social emotional and behavioural problems); management/handling skills; untrained teachers; trained teachers; male teachers; female teachers

Comorbidity of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder: implications for clinical practice
Arina Diana Sofia, Tiberiu Constantin Ionescu, Ana Miruna Dragoi
Alexandru Obregia Clinical Hospital of Psychiatry, Bucharest
Clinical Neuroscience Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Bucharest
Schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder are one of the most confronted dual diagnosis among the psychiatric population. This comorbidity represents a challenge for clinicians, who are facing both the diagnostic process and the development of specific psychiatric treatments.
This manuscript is a literature review of relevant studies that have evaluated comorbidities associated with schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder. 34 recent studies were selected using different variables (methods, geographic, socio-economic or cultural patterns).
Despite the limitations of each study, the interest in patients with this dual diagnosis helps to identify new research directions and can give clinicians real support in their evaluation and treatment.
Keywords: schizophrenia; alcohol use disorders; comorbidity; social functioning; cognitive impairment

The reliability and the construct validity of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) in a sample of Romanian undergraduates
Beatrice Adriana Balgiu
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, România
The present article focuses on the investigation of the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6), a self-report six-item questionnaire meant to measure the disposition to gratitude. The latter, together with validated measures of life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale) and affectivity (Scale of Positive and Negative Experience), was applied in the case of a sample of Romanian undergraduates (N = 250; Mage = 20,84). Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrate that the model with one factor and five items is more appropriate for the measurement of gratitude than the original six-item version. This structure was confirmed and it was invariant for gender. The new GQ-5 instrument has an internal acceptable consistency of 0.70. The convergent validity is demonstrated by the fact that the gratitude is associated with life satisfaction, positive and negative affect.
Keywords: gratitude; GQ-6; life satisfaction; positive affect; negative affect; factorial structure

Work-life balance and self-efficacy as predictors of organisational commitment among bankers in Benue State, Nigeria
Onah Caleb, Chinelo Helen Ogwuche, Dennis Relojo Howell
Department of Psychology, Benue State University Makurdi, P.M.B 102119 Makurdi Benue state
Psychreg, United Kingdom
This study investigated work-life balance and self-efficacy as predictors of organisational commitment among bankers in Benue State in Nigeria. Three research objectives, questions, and hypotheses were generated to guide the study. The study employed cross-sectional survey method. Two hundred and ninety six participants were selected using convenience sampling techniques among bankers in Benue State. The instruments used in the study for data collection were: (1) Work-life Balance Scale; (2) Self-Efficacy Scale; and, (3) Organisational Commitment Scale. Results from the hypotheses tested showed that there was no statistical significant influence of work-life balance on organisational commitment among bankers in Benue State, F (1,290)=1.385, p>.05. The result further revealed that there was a statistical significant influence of self-efficacy on organisational commitment among bankers, F(1,284)=35.454, p<.01. Finally, the result showed a significant joint influence of work-life balance and self-efficacy on organisational commitment among bankers, F(2,284)=21.958, p<.01. It was concluded that there was no significant influence of work-life balance on organisational commitment among bankers; self-efficacy significantly influenced organisational commitment; and work-life balance and self-efficacy had a significant joint influence on organisational commitment among bankers. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the management of banks should pay particular attention for this trait of self-efficacy during recruitment

Keywords: bankers; commitment; organisational psychology; self-efficacy; work-life balance

Fragility versus aggression as a factor of professional selection within the police structure
Simona Trifu, Antonia Ioana Trifu
U.M.F. “Carol Davila”, 37 Dionisie Lupu Str., 020021, Bucharest, Romania
Medical Military Institute, 3-5 Str. Institutul Medico-Militar, 010919, Bucharest, Romania
We propose some psychodynamic explanations on the different groups of defense mechanisms (more primitive or more mature) needed at various times of the professional activity, together with their connection with the personality structure of the employee, with age, experience, possible personal and professional psycho-traumas. We will consider a cumulative vision of the factors that may amplify in a negative manner the passages to the act, the descent of the impulsive-explosive potential in an inappropriate and uncritical manner, as well as the management directions of such crisis situations that can be isolated or can generate similar “in chain” manifestations.
Keywords: personality; fragility; police; power structures; military enviorenement

The examination of mediating effects for self-control and time management in relationship among problematic cellphone use with loneliness and educational performance of high school students
Seyedeh Afsaneh Garakouei, Seyyed Valiollah Mousavi, Sajjad Rezaei, Amir Qorbanpoor Lafmejani
Department of Counseling, Rasht Branch Islamic Azad University, Rasht, 4147654919, Iran
University of Guilan, Rasht, 4199843653, Iran
This study was carried out to investigate the mediating effects of self-control and time management on the relationship among problematic cell-phone use (PCU), loneliness and academic performance of high school students in Northern Iran. The 330 adolescents were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. The problematic cell-phone use questionnaire, self-control questionnaire, loneliness questionnaire, and time management questionnaire were utilized for data collection. Results indicated that self-control does not play a mediating role in reducing the negative effect of PCU on loneliness and academic performance; however, time management, as a mediator, is able to reduce the effects of PCU on loneliness, but cannot mediate between PCU and academic performance. This study emphasizes the role of time management in reducing the destructive effects of PCU on loneliness.
Keywords: mediating effects; time management; self-control; academic performance

The comorbidity between schizophrenia and alcohol. Substance addiction and alcohol use link to schizophrenia
Ana Miruna Dragoi, Anca Vladuti
”Alex. Obregia” Clinical Hospital for Psychiatry, 10 Berceni Str., 041915 Bucharest, Romania
University of Bucharest, FPSE, 90 Panduri Str., 050663 Bucharest, Romania
Taking into account that the comorbidity between schizophrenia and alcohol usage is one of the most common duos among the psychiatric population, there are, currently, authors of relevant studies who did not manage to decide upon various research hypotheses. The previously mentioned comorbidity poses a challenge to clinicians. They are encountering it not only during the diagnostic process, but also when developing a personalized psychiatric treatment. The aim of this scientific endeavor is to conduct a meta-analysis of some suitable studies, focusing on the comorbidity of schizophrenia and alcohol use. We are attempting to realize a synthesis covering distinctive variables, psychiatric populations originating from different geographical, socio-economic, cultural areas, which are being investigated using various evaluation methods. Despite the limitations found in every study, we can state that the increasing interest towards patients who suffer from this dual diagnosis, contributes to the discovery of new research directions and could provide clinicians an important support in not only evaluating, but
also treating them.
Keywords: schizophrenia; alcoholism; comorbidity; motivation; addiction

A study on the structure of Self in personality disorders and attachment disorders: narcissistic personality disorder and histrionic personality disorder
Steliana Lefter
Universitatea Hyperion din Bucureşti, Calea Călăraşilor 169, Sector 3, Bucureşti, 030615, Romania
This study shows how the present self relates to different pathological manifestations of the personality across different attachment styles. The aim is to identify the relationship patterns of the attachment styles associated with different personality disorders. It is also expected to identify less common links in light of the occurrence of specificity of the personality disorders discussed in the dimensional model
for these disorders as identified in DSM V. In this sense, participants to the study were selected from among the students enrolled in the training programs Pedagogy of Preschool and Primary Education and Pedagogy, specialties where openness to new, self-actualization, flexibility and empathy are important qualities for the graduates’ professional achievement.
Keywords: self; relationship; attachment disorder; personality disorder

Is cognitive approach the missing link towards restoring functionality in schizophrenia?
Arina-Diana Sofia, Arina Cipriana Trifu, Tiberiu Constantin Ionescu
Clinical Neuroscience Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Bucharest, “Alexandru Obregia” Clinical Hospital of Psychiatry, 10 Berceni Str., Bucharest, Romania
Medical Military Institute, 3-5 Medical-Military Institute Str., Bucharest, Romania
Given the chronic evolution of schizophrenia, long-term results of classical treatment approach can prove unsatisfying, with progression towards significant functional decline. Disease progression is influenced, among others, by age of onset, personal neurodevelopment characteristics and cognitive abilities, treatment compliance and number of relapses with consequential associated neurotoxicity, raising the question whether additional non-pharmacological treatment options focusing on cognitive capacity could improve patient functioning, with subsequent improved quality of life and lower disease burden.
We present a series of four schizophrenia cases with relatively short disease progression, of which two received psychotherapy in addition to pharmacological treatment, while the others did not, wishing to illustrate literature data concerning the differences in terms of cognitive and social functionality that may be due to broader treatment approach.
Keywords: schizophrenia; social functioning; cognitive training

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