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Journal Vol. II (LXIV) - No. 1/2012

Perceptions of computers and information and communication technology among regular and special needs teachers in Cyprus
Zafer Bekirogullari
Cag University, Psychology Department, Mersin, 33800, Turkey
Computers and related technologies provide important means of instruction for regular students and
students with special needs. Integrating computers and technologies in schools has lagged their
development and use. The future use of computers and technologies in schools largely depend upon
teachers’ knowledge and skills and their attitudes towards implementing computers and ICT into the
curriculum. This exploratory study investigated attitudes held by regular and special needs teachers in
Cyprus toward using computers and ICT. Regular teachers made greater use of computers and
technologies than special needs teachers. Overall, teachers reported they used computers daily to access
the Internet for using electronic mail, Facebook, and online chats, but computers and technologies did
not play any substantive role in their classrooms for instruction. No teacher in either group reported
using these tools in school: films or videos, the Internet, audiocassette players, or Microsoft
PowerPoint. Yet, regular and special needs teachers generally regarded computers and technologies
positively. To integrate computers and technologies within schools requires that teachers understand
their potential to help students. Teachers need instruction in using computers and related technologies.
Teacher preparation programs must include computers and ICT as essential components in teacher
Keywords: teachers; attitudes; computers; technology; special education

Academic attributions and school achievement among Romanian children left behind by migrant parents
Nicoleta Laura Popa
Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch, Bdul Carol I, nr. 8, 700505 Iasi, Romania
Given the limited research-based information available about Romanian students left behind by migrant
parents, the present study focuses on academic attributions and school achievement among this group.
Students' responsibility beliefs in academic situations were measured with a later form of Intellectual
Achievement Responsibility questionnaire (Crandall et al., 1965). The average grade for a semester
was taken into account as an indicator of school achievement level. One hundred seventy-four
secondary school students participated in the study, out of which ninety-two with migrant parents.
Instruments were self-administered and classroom teachers reported average grades. Results indicate
that parents’ absence has significant effects on students’ school achievement and academic attributions
are significantly more negative and rather external for children left behind.
Keywords: academic attributions; school achievement; migration; children left behind

Effects of TV viewing on the adjustment of children in relation to cultural environment
Hemant Lata Sharma, Sanjeev Tomar
M.D. University, Rohtak-124001. India
Shri Varshney PG College, ALIGARH 202001(U.P.) India
The present study explores the impact of TV viewing, gender and cultural environment on adjustment
in the terms of four selected areas along with grand total viz home, social, health, school and total
adjustment among the school going children at senior secondary level. For this purpose, the random
sampling technique was used. The impact of independent variables on adjustment of children was
assessed on a sample consisting of 400 adolescents (200 light TV viewers and 200 heavy TV viewers)
with gender equivalence from rural and urban area students studying at different 19 senior secondary
schools. ‘Adjustment Inventory’ (Mittal, 2006) was employed. The findings revealed that girls were
found higher as compared to boys on the social adjustment whereas boys scored higher on health
adjustment as compared to girls. Rural students were higher on home adjustment than that of urban
students. No significant difference was observed in the adjustment of light and heavy TV viewers.
Keywords: adjustment; TV viewing; gender; cultural environment

About praise and its efficiency in education
Emil Stan
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Bucuresti Blvd., 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
This study aims at analyzing the contexts in which the praises are used as rewards (family, school,
group of friends), types of praises which are used, as well as the reasons for which praises are used. For
this purpose, the research targets a sample of 80 subjects, who are students at the various specialties of
the Educational Sciences domain; the sample was taken with the purpose of obtaining relevant data on
the ability of the future teachers to use techniques and tools which are specific to class management in
an efficient manner.
Keywords: praises, class management, education, control, rewards

Traditional and alternative issues in students’ evaluation
Simona Eftimie
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Bucuresti Blvd., 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
Our study aims to analyze traditional vs. alternative issues regarding the evaluation process at
university level. Developing mostly an investigative research, we have focused especially on obtaining
data about traditional and alternative methods used in students’ evaluation; also, we have analysed
students’ perception on the role of evaluation in the didactic activities, and the efficiency of traditional
versus modern evaluation methods. Other issues concerning evaluation at university level are also
Keywords: evaluation; traditional vs alternative evaluation; evaluation methods

Academic self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and academic achievement of Romanian students. Results from an exploratory study
Cicei Cristiana Catalina, Dan Florin Stanescu, Laura Mohorea
College of Communication and Public Relations, Laboratory of Interpersonal Communication,
National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, 6-8 Povernei St., Bucharest 010643,
The relationship between emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy and academic achievement
begins to raise researchers’ interest, especially having in view its practical implications. An exploratory
pilot study was conducted on a sample of 92 college students with ages ranging between 18 and 25
years old (M=21.08, SD=2.85). The College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (Owen & Froman, 1988)
and Assessing Emotions Scale (Schutte et al., 1998) were used. Significant positive correlations have
been obtained between the general emotional intelligence score, between Managing own emotions and
Utilizing emotions subscales of AES and academic self-efficacy. From the current sample, the grade
point average of the last semester was obtained for 55 students, in view of examining the relationship
between emotional intelligence, academic-self efficacy and academic achievement.
Keywords: academic self-efficacy; emotional intelligence; managing emotions; understanding
emotions; perception of emotions; Romanian students

Teachers’ perception on the categories of competences considered important in initial and continuous training
Crisan Alina, Enache Roxana
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, street C-tin Daicoviciu, 15, Cluj, Romania
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Bucuresti Blvd., 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
Starting from the concept advanced by futurists that human kind has experienced and learned the shock of
the future and nowadays it has to learn future projection, and from the words of Jacques Delors in his
famous report, that it is more important to learn how to learn, to know how to search and retain what is
really meaningful, useful and applicable and know how to put things in practice, we have captured in the
current paper the perception of 1000 teachers by the focus group method regarding the importance of
certain competences in training programs according to their professional development level, their
experience, subjects taught, age, gender and background.
Keywords: competences; teacher perception; initial training; continuous training

The teacher’s worries and concerns (or what takes place in his inner world)
Gabriel Albu
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Bucuresti Blvd., 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
When referring to the teacher and the various aspects of his work, we tacitly assume that he is in a
serene and balanced mood. Therefore, we do not see a reason to pause and reflect on his spiritual
horizon, more often caught in the web of worries and concerns. The study seeks to capture the main
worries and concerns of the (contemporary) teacher and, at the same time, draws ways / methods of
psychological recovery, so that these worries and concerns do not affect in the least the overall quality
of his work and his involvement in relation to students.
Keywords: teacher; worry; concern

Basic personality dimensions and the attitudes of primary and secondary school teachers towards inclusive education
Jelisaveta Todorovic, Snezana Stojiljkovic, Gordana Djigic, Suzana Ristanic
Faculty of Philosophy, University of Niš, Cirila i Metodija 2, 18000 Niš, Serbia
The research is concerned with the correlation between primary and secondary schools teachers’
attitudes towards inclusive education and basic personality dimensions. The attitudes towards inclusive
education include the attitudes regarding the inclusion of children with different developmental
difficulties in regular schools, the attitudes regarding the responsibility of a school for quality education
for all children, and teachers` self-evaluation regarding their own relevant professional and personal
capacities to work with children having developmental difficulties. Teachers’ personality was
examined through five basic dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and
consciousness. The results show that 80% of examinees support the inclusive education. Teachers’
attitudes towards inclusive education significantly correlate with their openness. Teachers in primary
schools have a more positive attitude towards inclusive education compared with secondary school
Keywords: education; inclusion; attitudes; Five Factor Model; openness

Gender differences in the academic achievement of mainstream and religious school students
Sadia Batool
Faculty of Education, Preston University, Islamabad,Pakistan
The purpose of the present study was to find out the gender differences in academic achievement of mainstream
and religious school students. Sample of the study was 490 students of grade tenth. Average of the student’s two
terminal and a final examination achievement scores was calculated. In order to summarize the students’ academic
achievement scores, the descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used. To find the significance of
difference on achievement of male and female students, the t test was used. The level of confidence was decided as
.05. It was found that the achievement scores of female students were higher as compared to male students from
both categories of schools, meaning girls outperformed boys.
Keywords: academic ethic; peer group; personality; self-evaluation; cluster sampling; assessment

Peer pressure, academic and social experience of secondary school teenagers in the outskirts of Mbarara municipality, Uganda
Aloysius Rukundo
Mbarara University of Science and Technology, P.O BOX 1410, Mbarara 256, Uganda
The present study was conducted to get scientific explanation of how teenagers constructively and
destructively influence others in academic and social context. Cross-sectional design, qualitative
method, and focus group discussions were employed. Randomly selected students (n =40) from
purposively selected secondary schools (N=4) were recruited into the study. Participants in each school
were divided into groups and each group given topics of discussion. It was realized that peer pressure
almost weighs equally on both positive and negative scales of teenagers’ academic and social
experiences. Teenagers also had varied strategies of avoiding negative peer pressure influences. It was
concluded that though teenagers knew how to bolster bad peer pressure, some find it a challenge to cut
a rational balance between accepting peer engagement and being themselves.
Keywords: peer pressure; teenagers; academic experiences; social experiences; secondary schools

Teachers’ views of teaching reading. A pilot study
Diana Presada
Petroleum – Gas University of Ploiesti, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
In comparison with other skills, reading is one of the most frequent activities that foreign language
teachers use in higher education. This fact led to the development of a study intended to identify and
examine teachers’ views of reading as a multifunctional skill, providing students with the opportunity
to improve their mastering of the target language. During such lessons, vocabulary can be enriched and
activated, grammar structures are consolidated, near-to-life situations are recreated, and all these within
a communicative framework that contributes to building up human interrelations. Starting from this
assumption, our paper aims to evaluate teachers’ opinions on the importance of teaching reading skills
from modern and traditional perspectives.
Keywords: reading; modern; tradional; teachers; higher education

Students’ perception of teaching reading. A pilot study
Mihaela Badea
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Bucuresti Blvd., 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
The student is both the object and subject of any educational process. On the one hand, it is the teacher
who moulds the student’s mind and skills, and on the other hand it is the student who should become
responsible for his own learning. In order to develop the intellectual universe and emotional world of
his students, the teacher should not only offer knowledge, but also motivation to them. For this reason
we consider that reading activities provide a good opportunity for accomplishing such a task, due to an
interdisciplinary context and an integrated skills approach. The paper aims at surveying students’
perception of the way in which teaching reading skills should be applied at academic level.
Keywords: reading; teaching techniques; traditonal; modern

The limits of current practices in teaching English for Business and Economics
Nicolae Oana Adina
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Bucuresti Blvd., 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
In Romania, the advent of democracy as well as the ever increasing importance of English on the
global political, economic and linguistic market have undeniably led to an educational commitment to
teaching English for Business and Economics (EBE). More than successfully linking the teaching of
General English with the teaching of this particular branch of English for Specific Purposes, teachers
face the challenge of consolidating the learners’ abilities in a plurality of directions, so as to harmonize
the students’ various language competences. This paper claims the importance of metaphorical
competence in Second Language Acquisition, and promotes the role of metaphor in teaching and
learning. It critically reflects on current practices in teaching EBE, concluding that a more cognitivelyoriented
approach is appropriate.
Keywords: English for Business and Economics; language competence; metaphorical competence

An analysis of the psychometric properties of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire-12
Claudia Lenuta Rus, Adriana Baban, Saul Neves de Jesus, Daniela Andrei
Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Psychology, 37 Republicii, Cluj-Napoca, 400015, Romania
University of Algarve, Department of Psychology, Campus de Gambelas, Faro, 8005-139, Portugal
This study examines the factorial structure and reliability of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire-
12 self-rater form (Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007; Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007) using
two samples of 257 Romanian employees each. The results based on the data provided by the first
sample reveal that the second-order factor model comprising self-efficacy, hope, optimism and
resilience as indicators of positive psychological capital fitted better compared to unifactorial model.
This second-order factorial structure was also supported by the results of the cross-validation strategy
conducted on the second sample. Also, this instrument showed an adequate reliability (

Portuguese version of the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale©: the translation and validation process
Sandra Cruz, Luís Carvalho
Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, Porto, 4200-072, Portugal
The absence of instruments to systematically evaluate clinical supervision in nursing made it difficult
to understand and develop the Portuguese professional nurses’ exercise. Therefore, we carried out a
research with the purpose to translate and validate the Portuguese version of the Manchester Clinical
Supervision Scale© (MCSS©). Methods of translation and back – translation were applied and experts
analyzed them. Collaborative parties compared the MCSS© and the back translation. To estimate crosscultural
relevance we conducted an empirical study using a test – retest design. Internal consistency and
construct validity were examined, and the psychometric properties of the translated instrument were
good. The Portuguese version of the MCSS© is culturally acceptable and consistent with the original.
Keywords: translation; validation; clinical supervision; nursing; Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale©

Personality traits of negative perfectionist and non-negative perfectionist
Min Ma, Fei Zi
University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, Antwerp 2020, Belgium
Beijing Forestry University, Qinghuadonglu 35, Beijing 100083, China
Objective By comparing the personality traits of negative perfectionist and non-negative perfectionist,
the article studies the differences on cognition, emotion and motivation between the two groups.
Methods A qualitative study was conducted. Four negative perfectionists and two non-negative
perfectionists were interviewed by semi-structural ways. Qualitative data was analyzed. Results
Cognition: Authority always makes the negative perfectionist oppressive. The self-evaluation of
negative perfectionist is dominated by negative composition. Emotion: The former is apt to be anxious
and take a negative reaction. Motivation: The former pursues a comfortable life style, whereas the latter
is inclined to experience various styles of life. Conclusion Negative perfectionist mostly experience
negative feelings, motivations, and cognitions; on the contrary, the non-negative perfectionist is
inclined to experience positive ones.
Keywords: negative perfectionism; authoritarianism; personality traits; qualitative analysis

Imagery implementation among young soccer players
Veraksa Aleksander, Gorovaya Aleksandra
Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 125009, Mokhovaya street, 11/9
The present study examines the specificity of young athletes’ imagery use and effectiveness of
implementation of imagery training in soccer training sessions.
Taking the model of imagery use suggested by K. Martin, S. Moritz and C. Hall, the authors used a
Russian version of “The Sport Imagery Questionnaire” (SIQ) with soccer players 8, 10, 14 and 16 years
old, attending a sport schools in Moscow, Russia. In addition, aim of the study was to investigate the
nature of the connections between the use of types of mental imagery by athletes and the level of their
creativity (in this case Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking was used).
Age differences in types of imagery usage are shown. The results indicated that mental-imagery
training can result in enhanced performance among young soccer players.
Keywords: sport psychology; imagery; imagery training program; level of athlete’s imagination

Adults with disabilities – actualities and parents’ attitude
Alina Margaritoiu
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Bucuresti Blvd., 39, Ploiesti, 100680, Romania
Although there has been a series of improvements concerning the legislative and services level for
adults with disabilities, we have noticed a number of obstacles in their social and professional
integration. In this context, we have undertaken an investigation with reference to the attitude of
parents towards adults with disabilities (difficulties, social benefits and support services, their
opportunities for social and professional integration). An important finding of our research is that,
unfortunately, most of the investigated parents have a hyper protection attitude toward adults with
disabilities. In order to improve the quality of life for adults with disabilities, our study proposes
reconsidering families’ attitude and possible new solutions for their social and professional integration.
Keywords: disability; attitude; services; social and professional integration

Study on the history of immigration and father’s job in families with more than one disabled child (mental and physical retardation) in Isfahan city
Majid Mehr Mohammadi, Sirous Ahmadi
Department of Psychology, Behbahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Behbahan, Iran
School of Exercise and Sport Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
United Nurses Agency, Sydney, Australia
Background: Social factors have an important role in the formation of disabilities and mental and
physical disorders.
Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study. Samples were 494 mothers who had more than one
disabled child or normal children and were selected by simple and multistage randomizing method.
Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire.
Results: There was a significant relation between father’s job and belonging to the group (p = 0.000),
and immigration history, father’s job and belonging to the group (p = 0.04).
Conclusions: There was a significant relation between immigration history, father’s job and belonging
to the group (p = 0.04) which means the interaction between immigration history and father’s job
would increase the risk for having a disabled child (intellectual and physical-mobility disabilities).
Keywords: disabled; special needs; disability; immigration; job; physical and intellectual disability;
mentally retarded

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